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MeSH Review

Panic Disorder

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Disease relevance of Panic Disorder


Psychiatry related information on Panic Disorder

  • In contrast, comparison of these findings with a prior study showed that patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia who received yohimbine manifested significantly greater increases in MHPG levels and ratings of anxiety, nervousness, and depression than depressed patients [6].
  • The effects on measures of anxiety from two doses of oral caffeine (250 and 500 mg) and placebo were compared in 12 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 12 patients with panic disorder, and 12 normal subjects [7].
  • Significantly more patients treated with alprazolam than with imipramine hydrochloride or placebo remained in therapy and experienced panic attack and phobia relief during the acute treatment phase [8].
  • A subgroup of patients with PTSD were observed to experience yohimbine-induced panic attacks (70% [14/20]) and flashbacks (40% [8/20]), and they had larger yohimbine-induced increases in plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol levels, sitting systolic blood pressure, and heart rate than those in healthy subjects [9].
  • At that point, 43% (10/23) of the fluvoxamine recipients vs 25% (5/20) of cognitive therapy and 4% (1/23) of placebo recipients were free of panic attacks [10].

High impact information on Panic Disorder


Chemical compound and disease context of Panic Disorder


Biological context of Panic Disorder

  • These findings indicate that the regulation of noradrenergic activity is aberrant in some patients with panic disorder, since a previous study demonstrated that patients with panic disorder exhibit increased plasma MHPG levels, blood pressure, and behavioral responses to the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine [20].
  • The number of binding sites in patients with panic attacks, as measured with tritiated clonidine, was lower than in depressed persons and was the same as in normal subjects [21].
  • We evaluated the functional sensitivity of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine supramolecular complex in 9 patients with panic disorder and 10 psychiatrically healthy control subjects by comparing the effects of four logarithmically increasing doses of intravenous diazepam on saccadic eye movement velocity, memory, and self-rated sedation [22].
  • Positron emission tomographic measurements of regional blood flow were used to assess local neuronal activity in patients with panic disorder and in normal control subjects before and during the infusion of sodium lactate [23].
  • In an open trial, five of eight panic disorder patients and none of five control subjects panicked after inhalation of two breaths of 35% CO2 and 65% O2; none panicked after placebo [24].

Anatomical context of Panic Disorder


Gene context of Panic Disorder


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Panic Disorder


  1. Ventilatory physiology of patients with panic disorder. Gorman, J.M., Fyer, M.R., Goetz, R., Askanazi, J., Liebowitz, M.R., Fyer, A.J., Kinney, J., Klein, D.F. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Heart rate and plasma norepinephrine responsivity to orthostatic challenge in anxiety disorders. Comparison of patients with panic disorder and social phobia and normal control subjects. Stein, M.B., Tancer, M.E., Uhde, T.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Overcoming hypersensitivity to fluoxetine in a patient with panic disorder. Giesecke, M.E. The American journal of psychiatry. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Contrasting patterns of autonomic dysfunction in patients with mitral valve prolapse and panic attacks. Weissman, N.J., Shear, M.K., Kramer-Fox, R., Devereux, R.B. Am. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of hyperventilation in subjects with panic disorder and comparison subjects. Dager, S.R., Strauss, W.L., Marro, K.I., Richards, T.L., Metzger, G.D., Artru, A.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor sensitivity in depression. The plasma MHPG, behavioral, and cardiovascular responses to yohimbine. Heninger, G.R., Charney, D.S., Price, L.H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Anxiogenic effects of caffeine in patients with anxiety disorders. Bruce, M., Scott, N., Shine, P., Lader, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Maintenance drug treatment of panic disorder. I. Results of a prospective, placebo-controlled comparison of alprazolam and imipramine. Schweizer, E., Rickels, K., Weiss, S., Zavodnick, S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Abnormal noradrenergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Southwick, S.M., Krystal, J.H., Morgan, C.A., Johnson, D., Nagy, L.M., Nicolaou, A., Heninger, G.R., Charney, D.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of fluvoxamine, cognitive therapy, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder. Black, D.W., Wesner, R., Bowers, W., Gabel, J. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. A single amino acid of the cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor determines specificity for non-peptide antagonists. Beinborn, M., Lee, Y.M., McBride, E.W., Quinn, S.M., Kopin, A.S. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. A focal brain abnormality in panic disorder, a severe form of anxiety. Reiman, E.M., Raichle, M.E., Butler, F.K., Herscovitch, P., Robins, E. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Panic attacks and idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Kahn, J.P., Drusin, R.E. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Decreased GABAA-receptor clustering results in enhanced anxiety and a bias for threat cues. Crestani, F., Lorez, M., Baer, K., Essrich, C., Benke, D., Laurent, J.P., Belzung, C., Fritschy, J.M., Lüscher, B., Mohler, H. Nat. Neurosci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in panic disorder. Glue, P., Nutt, D.J. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Urinary excretion of noradrenaline metabolite decreased in panic disorder. Hamlin, C.L., Lydiard, R.B., Martin, D., Dackis, C.A., Pottash, A.C., Sweeney, D., Gold, M.S. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Buspirone metabolite and panic attacks. Fuller, R.W. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Panic attacks and excessive aspartame ingestion. Drake, M.E. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Early coadministration of clonazepam with sertraline for panic disorder. Goddard, A.W., Brouette, T., Almai, A., Jetty, P., Woods, S.W., Charney, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Abnormal regulation of noradrenergic function in panic disorders. Effects of clonidine in healthy subjects and patients with agoraphobia and panic disorder. Charney, D.S., Heninger, G.R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptor binding and plasma catecholamines. Before and during imipramine treatment in patients with panic anxiety. Cameron, O.G., Smith, C.B., Hollingsworth, P.J., Nesse, R.M., Curtis, G.C. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in panic disorder. Roy-Byrne, P.P., Cowley, D.S., Greenblatt, D.J., Shader, R.I., Hommer, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Neuroanatomical correlates of a lactate-induced anxiety attack. Reiman, E.M., Raichle, M.E., Robins, E., Mintun, M.A., Fusselman, M.J., Fox, P.T., Price, J.L., Hackman, K.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. CO2 challenge of patients with panic disorder. Fyer, M.R., Uy, J., Martinez, J., Goetz, R., Klein, D.F., Fyer, A., Liebowitz, M.R., Gorman, J. The American journal of psychiatry. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of one night's sleep deprivation on mood and behavior in panic disorder. Patients with panic disorder compared with depressed patients and normal controls. Roy-Byrne, P.P., Uhde, T.W., Post, R.M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Panic disorder in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Beitman, B.D. Am. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Lymphocyte cholecystokinin concentrations in panic disorder. Brambilla, F., Bellodi, L., Perna, G., Garberi, A., Panerai, A., Sacerdote, P. The American journal of psychiatry. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Cerebrospinal fluid gamma-aminobutyric acid in patients with panic disorder. Rimón, R., Lepola, U., Jolkkonen, J., Halonen, T., Riekkinen, P. Biol. Psychiatry (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Regional cerebral metabolic asymmetries replicated in an independent group of patients with panic disorders. Nordahl, T.E., Stein, M.B., Benkelfat, C., Semple, W.E., Andreason, P., Zametkin, A., Uhde, T.W., Cohen, R.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. No association or linkage between polymorphisms in the genes encoding cholecystokinin and the cholecystokinin B receptor and panic disorder. Hamilton, S.P., Slager, S.L., Helleby, L., Heiman, G.A., Klein, D.F., Hodge, S.E., Weissman, M.M., Fyer, A.J., Knowles, J.A. Mol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Investigation of cholecystokinin system genes in panic disorder. Kennedy, J.L., Bradwejn, J., Koszycki, D., King, N., Crowe, R., Vincent, J., Fourie, O. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Catechol o-methyltransferase, serotonin transporter, and tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphisms in bipolar disorder patients with and without comorbid panic disorder. Rotondo, A., Mazzanti, C., Dell'Osso, L., Rucci, P., Sullivan, P., Bouanani, S., Gonnelli, C., Goldman, D., Cassano, G.B. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Investigation of the DAOA/G30 locus in panic disorder. Schumacher, J., Abou Jamra, R., Becker, T., Klopp, N., Franke, P., Jacob, C., Sand, P., Fritze, J., Ohlraun, S., Schulze, T.G., Rietschel, M., Illig, T., Propping, P., Cichon, S., Deckert, J., Nöthen, M.M. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Increased ACTH concentrations associated with cholecystokinin tetrapeptide-induced panic attacks in patients with panic disorder. Ströhle, A., Holsboer, F., Rupprecht, R. Neuropsychopharmacology (2000) [Pubmed]
  35. Increased anxiogenic effects of caffeine in panic disorders. Charney, D.S., Heninger, G.R., Jatlow, P.I. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Imipramine and alprazolam treatment of lactate-induced acute endogenous distress in nonhuman primates. Sunderland, G., Friedman, S., Rosenblum, L.A. The American journal of psychiatry. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Nonfearful panic disorder in neurology patients validated by lactate challenge. Russell, J.L., Kushner, M.G., Beitman, B.D., Bartels, K.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Catechol O-methyltransferase genetic polymorphism in panic disorder. Woo, J.M., Yoon, K.S., Yu, B.H. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Controlled study of verapamil for treatment of panic disorder. Klein, E., Uhde, T.W. The American journal of psychiatry. (1988) [Pubmed]
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