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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Heart Rate

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Disease relevance of Heart Rate

  • In addition, the patients switched from digoxin to placebo had lower quality-of-life scores (P = 0.04), decreased ejection fractions (P = 0.001), and increases in heart rate (P = 0.001) and body weight (P < 0.001) [1].
  • When the isoproterenol infusion was administered during the tilt test, 9 of the 11 patients with negative electrophysiologic and tilt tests had syncope, marked slowing of the heart rate, and hypotension [2].
  • The patients were assigned to either propranolol therapy, at a dose sufficient to decrease the base-line heart rate by 25 percent, or variceal ligation, to be performed weekly until the varices were obliterated or so reduced in size that it was not possible to continue treatment [3].
  • Baseline measures of anxiety (tension), anger symptoms, and expression of anger (anger-in and anger-out) were taken, along with biological and behavioral predictors of hypertension (initial systolic blood pressure, heart rate, relative weight, age, hematocrit, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and glucose intolerance) [4].
  • Breath holding in awake normals did not result in bradycardia during hyperoxia (SaO2 = 99%), but was consistently (P less than 0.01) associated with heart rate slowing during room air breath-holds (-6 bpm) at SaO2 = 93%, with more striking slowing (-20 bpm) during hypoxic breath-holds (P less than 0.01) at SaO2 = 78% [5].

Psychiatry related information on Heart Rate


High impact information on Heart Rate

  • Regulation of these ion channels via G protein-coupled receptor signaling underlies the control of heart rate and the actions of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system [11].
  • The dose of propranolol was adjusted to decrease the resting heart rate by 20 percent from each patient's base-line value [12].
  • The initial dose of nadolol was 80 mg orally once daily, with adjustment according to the resting heart rate; isosorbide mononitrate was given in increasing doses, beginning at 20 mg once a day at bed time and rising over the course of one week to 40 mg orally twice a day, unless side effects occurred [13].
  • METHODS: In a patient with orthostatic intolerance and her relatives, we measured postural blood pressure, heart rate, plasma catecholamines, and systemic norepinephrine spillover and clearance, and we sequenced the norepinephrine-transporter gene and evaluated its function [14].
  • Cardiac m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors reduce heart rate by coupling to heterotrimeric (alpha beta gamma) guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins that activate IKACh, an inward rectifier K+ channel (IRK) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Heart Rate


Biological context of Heart Rate


Anatomical context of Heart Rate


Associations of Heart Rate with chemical compounds

  • The heart rates in the propranolol-treated group were significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P less than 0.001) [31].
  • After six months, surgical patients achieved significantly higher exercise work loads (P less than 0.01), exercise heart rates (P less than 0.05), maximum paced heart rates (P less than 0.01) and myocardial lactate extraction (P less than 0.01) [32].
  • Glucose also increased the relative intensity of submaximal exercise, as indicated by a higher heart rate at a given workload during exercise [33].
  • Caffeine 250 mg, raised blood pressure by 12/6 mm Hg, from 129 +/- 25/78 +/- 12 (mean +/- S.D.) to a maximum of 141 +/- 30/84 +/- 16 mm Hg at 45 minutes (P less than 0.01), but did not change heart rate, levels of norepinephrine, or epinephrine, or plasma renin activity [34].
  • Therapy with clonidine reduced the frequency of attacks by 81 percent and attenuated the elevated blood pressure and heart rate in the attacks that occurred [35].

Gene context of Heart Rate

  • MinK, through the formation of heteromeric channel complexes, is thus central to the control of the heart rate and rhythm [36].
  • To examine the role of cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes in prostaglandin formation and oxidant stress in inflammation, we administered to volunteer subjects placebo or bolus injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which caused a dose-dependent increase in temperature, heart rate, and plasma cortisol [37].
  • LQT3 patients (n = 7) shortened their QT interval in response to increases in heart rate much more than LQT2 patients (n = 4) and also more than 18 healthy control subjects (9.45 +/- 3.3 versus 3.95 +/- 1.97 and 2.83 +/- 1.33, P < .05; data expressed as percent reduction in QT per 100-ms shortening in RR) [38].
  • We tested the hypothesis that the QT interval would shorten more in LQT3 than in LQT2 patients in response to mexiletine and also in response to increases in heart rate [38].
  • The TR beta subtype is involved in cholesterol lowering and possibly elevating metabolic rate, whereas TR alpha appears to be more important for control of heart rate (HR) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Heart Rate


  1. Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. RADIANCE Study. Packer, M., Gheorghiade, M., Young, J.B., Costantini, P.J., Adams, K.F., Cody, R.J., Smith, L.K., Van Voorhees, L., Gourley, L.A., Jolly, M.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Provocation of bradycardia and hypotension by isoproterenol and upright posture in patients with unexplained syncope. Almquist, A., Goldenberg, I.F., Milstein, S., Chen, M.Y., Chen, X.C., Hansen, R., Gornick, C.C., Benditt, D.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparison of endoscopic ligation and propranolol for the primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Sarin, S.K., Lamba, G.S., Kumar, M., Misra, A., Murthy, N.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Psychological predictors of hypertension in the Framingham Study. Is there tension in hypertension? Markovitz, J.H., Matthews, K.A., Kannel, W.B., Cobb, J.L., D'Agostino, R.B. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Bradycardia during sleep apnea. Characteristics and mechanism. Zwillich, C., Devlin, T., White, D., Douglas, N., Weil, J., Martin, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. Total plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk profile. The Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Nygård, O., Vollset, S.E., Refsum, H., Stensvold, I., Tverdal, A., Nordrehaug, J.E., Ueland, M., Kvåle, G. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Prostaglandin D2, a cerebral sleep-inducing substance in monkeys. Onoe, H., Ueno, R., Fujita, I., Nishino, H., Oomura, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Mitochondrial response to heart rate steps in isolated rabbit heart is slowed after myocardial stunning. Zuurbier, C.J., van Beek, J.H. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Lactate sensitivity and cardiac cholinergic function in panic disorder. Yeragani, V.K., Srinivasan, K., Balon, R., Ramesh, C., Berchou, R. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of acute psychological stress on serum lipid levels, hemoconcentration, and blood viscosity. Muldoon, M.F., Herbert, T.B., Patterson, S.M., Kameneva, M., Raible, R., Manuck, S.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Structural basis of inward rectification: cytoplasmic pore of the G protein-gated inward rectifier GIRK1 at 1.8 A resolution. Nishida, M., MacKinnon, R. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Reversal of catabolism by beta-blockade after severe burns. Herndon, D.N., Hart, D.W., Wolf, S.E., Chinkes, D.L., Wolfe, R.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Endoscopic ligation compared with combined treatment with nadolol and isosorbide mononitrate to prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. Villanueva, C., Miñana, J., Ortiz, J., Gallego, A., Soriano, G., Torras, X., Sáinz, S., Boadas, J., Cussó, X., Guarner, C., Balanzó, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency. Shannon, J.R., Flattem, N.L., Jordan, J., Jacob, G., Black, B.K., Biaggioni, I., Blakely, R.D., Robertson, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of domains conferring G protein regulation on inward rectifier potassium channels. Kunkel, M.T., Peralta, E.G. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Prevention and reversal of nitrate tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Packer, M., Lee, W.H., Kessler, P.D., Gottlieb, S.S., Medina, N., Yushak, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. L-2-Oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease. Vita, J.A., Frei, B., Holbrook, M., Gokce, N., Leaf, C., Keaney, J.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclical variation of the heart rate in sleep apnoea syndrome. Mechanisms, and usefulness of 24 h electrocardiography as a screening technique. Guilleminault, C., Connolly, S., Winkle, R., Melvin, K., Tilkian, A. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Oral clonidine for heart rate control in chronic atrial fibrillation. Scardi, S., Humar, F., Pandullo, C., Poletti, A. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased sympathetic outflow in cirrhosis and ascites: direct evidence from intraneural recordings. Floras, J.S., Legault, L., Morali, G.A., Hara, K., Blendis, L.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of atherosclerosis on the vasomotor response of coronary arteries to mental stress. Yeung, A.C., Vekshtein, V.I., Krantz, D.S., Vita, J.A., Ryan, T.J., Ganz, P., Selwyn, A.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Terbutaline and maternal cardiac function. Wagner, J.M., Morton, M.J., Johnson, K.A., O'Grady, J.P., Speroff, L. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Positive inotropic and vasodilator actions of milrinone in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships and comparison to nitroprusside. Jaski, B.E., Fifer, M.A., Wright, R.F., Braunwald, E., Colucci, W.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of AT1 receptors in the resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate by angiotensin II in the rabbit. Wong, J., Chou, L., Reid, I.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Hemodynamics in diabetic orthostatic hypotension. Hilsted, J., Parving, H.H., Christensen, N.J., Benn, J., Galbo, H. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Cocaine-induced coronary-artery vasoconstriction. Lange, R.A., Cigarroa, R.G., Yancy, C.W., Willard, J.E., Popma, J.J., Sills, M.N., McBride, W., Kim, A.S., Hillis, L.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Circadian variations in myocardial ischemia. Implications for management. Pepine, C.J. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. The central nervous system in potassium homeostasis. Rabinowitz, L., Aizman, R.I. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Cardiac and peripheral circulatory responses to angiotension and vasopressin in dogs. Lee, R.W., Standaert, S., Lancaster, L.D., Buckley, D., Goldman, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Abnormal heart rate regulation in GIRK4 knockout mice. Wickman, K., Nemec, J., Gendler, S.J., Clapham, D.E. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of propranolol on myocardial-infarct size in a randomized blinded multicenter trial. Roberts, R., Croft, C., Gold, H.K., Hartwell, T.D., Jaffe, A.S., Muller, J.E., Mullin, S.M., Parker, C., Passamani, E.R., Poole, W.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Coronary bypass for stable angina: a prospective randomized study. Kloster, F.E., Kremkau, E.L., Ritzmann, L.W., Rahimtoola, S.H., Rösch, J., Kanarek, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Glucose-induced exertional fatigue in muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency. Haller, R.G., Lewis, S.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Hemodynamic and humoral effects of caffeine in autonomic failure. Therapeutic implications for postprandial hypotension. Onrot, J., Goldberg, M.R., Biaggioni, I., Hollister, A.S., Kingaid, D., Robertson, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. The diagnosis and treatment of baroreflex failure. Robertson, D., Hollister, A.S., Biaggioni, I., Netterville, J.L., Mosqueda-Garcia, R., Robertson, R.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. A minK-HERG complex regulates the cardiac potassium current I(Kr). McDonald, T.V., Yu, Z., Ming, Z., Palma, E., Meyers, M.B., Wang, K.W., Goldstein, S.A., Fishman, G.I. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of regulated expression of human cyclooxygenase isoforms on eicosanoid and isoeicosanoid production in inflammation. McAdam, B.F., Mardini, I.A., Habib, A., Burke, A., Lawson, J.A., Kapoor, S., FitzGerald, G.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Long QT syndrome patients with mutations of the SCN5A and HERG genes have differential responses to Na+ channel blockade and to increases in heart rate. Implications for gene-specific therapy. Schwartz, P.J., Priori, S.G., Locati, E.H., Napolitano, C., Cantù, F., Towbin, J.A., Keating, M.T., Hammoude, H., Brown, A.M., Chen, L.S. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Selective thyroid hormone receptor-beta activation: a strategy for reduction of weight, cholesterol, and lipoprotein (a) with reduced cardiovascular liability. Grover, G.J., Mellström, K., Ye, L., Malm, J., Li, Y.L., Bladh, L.G., Sleph, P.G., Smith, M.A., George, R., Vennström, B., Mookhtiar, K., Horvath, R., Speelman, J., Egan, D., Baxter, J.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Social environment as a factor in diet-induced atherosclerosis. Nerem, R.M., Levesque, M.J., Cornhill, J.F. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  41. Nifedipine-induced hypotension and myocardial ischemia in refractory angina pectoris. Boden, W.E., Korr, K.S., Bough, E.W. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  42. Baroreflex impairment precedes hypertension during chronic cerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride in rats. Buñag, R.D., Miyajima, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  43. The alpha(1A/C)- and alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors are required for physiological cardiac hypertrophy in the double-knockout mouse. O'Connell, T.D., Ishizaka, S., Nakamura, A., Swigart, P.M., Rodrigo, M.C., Simpson, G.L., Cotecchia, S., Rokosh, D.G., Grossman, W., Foster, E., Simpson, P.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  44. Hyperinsulinemia produces both sympathetic neural activation and vasodilation in normal humans. Anderson, E.A., Hoffman, R.P., Balon, T.W., Sinkey, C.A., Mark, A.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
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