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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Immunostimulatory DNA sequences function as T helper-1-promoting adjuvants.

An adjuvant role for certain short bacterial immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISSs) has recently been proposed on the basis of their ability to stimulate T helper-1 ( Th1) responses in gene-vaccinated animals. We report here that noncoding, ISS-enriched plasmid DNAs or ISS oligonucleotides (ISS-ODNs) potently stimulate immune responses to coadministered antigens. The ISS-DNAs suppress IgE synthesis, but promote IgG and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. They furthermore initiate the production of IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and interleukins 12 and 18, all of which foster Th1 responses and enhance cell-mediated immunity. Consideration should be given to adding noncoding DNA adjuvants to inactivated or subunit viral vaccines that, by themselves, provide only partial protection from infection.[1]


  1. Immunostimulatory DNA sequences function as T helper-1-promoting adjuvants. Roman, M., Martin-Orozco, E., Goodman, J.S., Nguyen, M.D., Sato, Y., Ronaghy, A., Kornbluth, R.S., Richman, D.D., Carson, D.A., Raz, E. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
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