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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dynamic changes of BRCA1 subnuclear location and phosphorylation state are initiated by DNA damage.

BRCA1 localizes to discrete nuclear foci (dots) during S phase. Hydroxyurea-mediated DNA synthesis arrest of S phase MCF7 cells led to a loss of BRCA1 from these structures. Ultraviolet light, mitomycin C, or gamma irradiation produced a similar effect but with no concurrent arrest of DNA synthesis. BARD1 and Rad51, two proteins associated with the BRCA1 dots, behaved similarly. Loss of the BRCA1 foci was accompanied by a specific, dose-dependent change(s) in the state of BRCA1 phosphorylation. Three distinct DNA damaging agents preferentially induced this change in S phase. The S phase BRCA1 phosphorylation response to DNA damage occurred in cells lacking, respectively, two DNA damage-sensing protein kinases, DNA-PK and Atm, implying that neither plays a prime role in this process. Finally, after BRCA1 dot dispersal, BRCA1, BARD1, and Rad51 accumulated, focally, on PCNA+ replication structures, implying an interaction of BRCA1/BARD1/Rad51 containing complexes with damaged, replicating DNA. Taken together, the data imply that the BRCA1 S phase foci are dynamic physiological elements, responsive to DNA damage, and that BRCA1-containing multiprotein complexes participate in a replication checkpoint response.[1]


  1. Dynamic changes of BRCA1 subnuclear location and phosphorylation state are initiated by DNA damage. Scully, R., Chen, J., Ochs, R.L., Keegan, K., Hoekstra, M., Feunteun, J., Livingston, D.M. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
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