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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fluorescent dots in fluorescein angiography and fluorescein leukocyte angiography using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope in humans.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to disclose the nature of fluorescent dots and segments traditionally observed with fluorescein angiography (FA) using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope ( SLO 101; Rodenstock, München, Germany). The authors developed a new method, called fluorescein leukocyte angiography (FLA), to display directly the movement of leukocytes in human retinal vessels. METHODS: Fluorescein angiography was performed on two normal volunteers using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and fluorescent dots and segments were observed. Fluorescein leukocyte angiography, using an injection of fluorescent buffy coat layer from which the fluorescent plasma and nonfluorescent erythrocytes have been removed externally, was performed on seven normal volunteers. Injection fluid smears were examined through a fluorescent microscope. Peripheral blood smears taken during midphase of FA and FLA also were examined. In addition, 15 early-phase FAs of central serous chorioretinitis (CSC) were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: In the FAs of normal volunteers, fluorescent dots were detected only in perimacular capillaries at early phase. Eight of the 15 CSC FAs examined showed both fluorescent dots and segments. In the FLAs, fluorescent dots were detected in whole retinal vessels for more than 30 minutes. Fluorescent segments were observed in FA but not in FLA. Injected fluid smears from one FLA showed fluorescent leukocytes and small platelets. However, in peripheral blood smears of the FLA, leukocytes and platelets were more visible and exhibited higher contrast than those of an FA due to background plasma fluorescence. The mean velocity of 21 flowing leukocytes in perifoveal capillaries was 1.37 +/- 0.35 mm/second in 2 FAs and that of 89 flowing leukocytes was 1.41 +/- 0.29 mm/second in 7 FLAs. CONCLUSIONS: The authors' observations suggest that fluorescent dots in scanning laser ophthalmoscope imaging are fluorescein-stained leukocytes, whereas fluorescent segments are the hyperfluorescent plasma that is located between rouleaux formations of erythrocytes. The velocity of the fluorescent dots could be measured in the perimacular capillaries by either FA or FLA; however, only FLA can display the flow of fluorescent leukocytes in large vessels.[1]


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