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Chemical Compound Review

ARONIS014456     2-(6-hydroxy-3-oxo-xanthen-9- yl)benzoic acid

Synonyms: CHEMBL177756, AG-K-08079, CBDivE_002901, CHEBI:394107, BBL002034, ...
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Disease relevance of fluorescein


Psychiatry related information on fluorescein


High impact information on fluorescein

  • RESULTS: The expression of annexin II, as detected by a fluorescein-tagged antibody, was greater on leukemic cells from patients with APL than on other types of leukemic cells (mean fluorescence intensity, 6.9 and 2.9, respectively; P<0.01) [11].
  • The FL-Ti interaction is of physiologic significance, since T cell activation is induced by cross-linked arrays of FL in the absence of the specific MHC recognition [12].
  • Double fluorescent staining with CaM-RITC and fluorescein-labeled antibodies to tubulin and DNAase I revealed a mitochondrial distribution pattern similar to that of microtubule arrays but unrelated to actin cabling [13].
  • Furthermore, since flowers stain very intensely with fluorescein-labeled phalloidin, a cyclopeptide that selectively binds to F-actin and not to G-actin, we suggest that these structures result from an early reorganization of microfilaments [14].
  • Fluorescein staining of the patients' living neutrophils remained diffuse and patchy instead of showing the normal pattern in which the fluorescence is swept into the rear of the cell [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of fluorescein


Biological context of fluorescein

  • We have now reacted fluorescein-labelled Con A with polytene chromosomes isolated from different developmental stages of Chironomus thummi and visualised the location of the bound Con A by fluorescence microscopy [21].
  • In previous experiments we have introduced the T-cell receptor alpha- and beta-chain genes from a CD8-positive cytolytic T cell specific for the antigen fluorescein (FL) and the H-2D molecule of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) into a CD8-negative recipient cell [22].
  • Using fluorescein angiography, we show here that during every saccade, the pecten acts as an agitator which propels perfusate towards the central retina much more effectively than is observed during intersaccadic intervals [23].
  • Energy transfer between fluorescein and Texas Red was observed in the "floppy" alpha beta heterodimer band, but not in the "compact" alpha beta heterodimer band [24].
  • Furthermore, transfection of MAP cDNA into fibroblasts and subsequent analysis using microinjection of caged fluorescein-labeled tubulin and photoactivation have enabled the function of MAPs in microtubule dynamics to be studied in detail in vivo [25].

Anatomical context of fluorescein

  • We studied the extent of cell-to-cell communication via junctional channels in in vitro-implanted mouse blastocysts by monitoring ionic coupling and the spread of two injected low molecular weight dyes, fluorescein and Lucifer yellow [26].
  • In the 2-cell, 4-cell and precompaction 8-cell embryos, cytoplasmic bridges between sister blastomeres were responsible for ionic coupling and the transfer of injected fluorescein as well as the transfer of injected horseradish peroxidase.In contrast, no communication was observed between blastomeres from different sister pairs [27].
  • At the blastocyst stage, trophoblast cells of the blastocyst were linked by junctional channels to other trophoblast cells as well as to cells of the inner cell mass, as indicated by the spread of injected fluorescein [27].
  • We report here that modified live Toxoplasma-containing vacuoles fail to acidify in normal macrophages, as indicated by the sensitive pH probe fluorescein [28].
  • Fluorescein-labeled LyP-1 peptide was detected in tumor structures that were positive for three lymphatic endothelial markers and negative for three blood vessel markers [29].

Associations of fluorescein with other chemical compounds


Gene context of fluorescein

  • HA fragments as small as hexamers are capable of inducing expression of these genes in a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line, and monoclonal antibody to the HA receptor CD44 completely blocks binding of fluorescein-labeled HA to these cells and significantly inhibits HA-induced gene expression [35].
  • To test whether the peptides could act as chaperones and rescue the tumor-suppressing function of oncogenic mutants of p53 in living cells, we treated human tumor cells with the fluorescein-labeled peptide Fl-CDB3 (fluorescent derivative of CDB3) [36].
  • The role of the T-cell-derived lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) in the early activation, proliferation, and antibody-forming cell (AFC) clone formation of single fluorescein-specific B lymphocytes isolated from normal mouse spleens by hapten-gelatin adherence has been studied in vitro [37].
  • The Fc epsilon R+ cells were separated from the Fc epsilon R- cells by sorting non-B, non-T BM cell suspensions with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated IgE and then assessed for both IL-4 RNA expression and alcian blue staining [38].
  • A similar increase of immunofluorescence intensity of the activated T cells was observed by using anti-TNF-alpha Inh antibody revealed with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-coupled goat anti-rabbit IgG1 conjugate, suggesting that the TNF-alpha Inh is also expressed as a membrane protein [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of fluorescein


  1. Topical treatment with nerve growth factor for corneal neurotrophic ulcers. Lambiase, A., Rama, P., Bonini, S., Caprioglio, G., Aloe, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Hemorrhagic proctitis due to lymphogranuloma venereum serogroup L2. Diagnosis by fluorescent monoclonal antibody. Klotz, S.A., Drutz, D.J., Tam, M.R., Reed, K.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Infection of normal human epithelial cells by Epstein-Barr virus. Shapiro, I.M., Volsky, D.J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Detection of HIV-1 DNA and messenger RNA in individual cells by PCR-driven in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Patterson, B.K., Till, M., Otto, P., Goolsby, C., Furtado, M.R., McBride, L.J., Wolinsky, S.M. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Erythrosin B inhibits dopamine transport in rat caudate synaptosomes. Lafferman, J.A., Silbergeld, E.K. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of recurrent idiotypes within the unrestricted anti-fluorescein immune response. Reinitz, D.M., Voss, E.W. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Aqueous humor flow during sleep. Reiss, G.R., Lee, D.A., Topper, J.E., Brubaker, R.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Development and cellular applications of fiber optic nitric oxide sensors based on a gold-adsorbed fluorophore. Barker, S.L., Kopelman, R. Anal. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Antisense gene therapy for neurodegenerative disease? Haque, N., Isacson, O. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of components of immunoglobulins in senile plaques by means of fluorescent antibody technique. Ishii, T., Haga, S. Acta Neuropathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Annexin II and bleeding in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Menell, J.S., Cesarman, G.M., Jacovina, A.T., McLaughlin, M.A., Lev, E.A., Hajjar, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Direct evidence for the existence of nominal antigen binding sites on T cell surface Ti alpha-beta heterodimers of MHC-restricted T cell clones. Siliciano, R.F., Hemesath, T.J., Pratt, J.C., Dintzis, R.Z., Dintzis, H.M., Acuto, O., Shin, H.S., Reinherz, E.L. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. The identification of calmodulin-binding sites on mitochondria in cultured 3T3 cells. Pardue, R.L., Kaetzel, M.A., Hahn, S.H., Brinkley, B.R., Dedman, J.R. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Early changes in the distribution and organization of microfilament proteins during cell transformation. Boschek, C.B., Jockusch, B.M., Friis, R.R., Back, R., Grundmann, E., Bauer, H. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. A neutrophil disorder induced by capnocytophaga, a dental micro-organism. Shurin, S.B., Socransky, S.S., Sweeney, E., Stossel, T.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Diagnosing Helicobacter pylori in vivo by confocal laser endoscopy. Kiesslich, R., Goetz, M., Burg, J., Stolte, M., Siegel, E., Maeurer, M.J., Thomas, S., Strand, D., Galle, P.R., Neurath, M.F. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Migration of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein to the nucleus of infected cells. Da Poian, A.T., Gomes, A.M., Oliveira, R.J., Silva, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. HIV-1 TAR RNA enhances the interaction between Tat and cyclin T1. Zhang, J., Tamilarasu, N., Hwang, S., Garber, M.E., Huq, I., Jones, K.A., Rana, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Fixation conditions for DNA and RNA in situ hybridization: a reassessment of molecular morphology dogma. Tbakhi, A., Totos, G., Hauser-Kronberger, C., Pettay, J., Baunoch, D., Hacker, G.W., Tubbs, R.R. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Experimental aortic lesions of acute serum sickness in rabbits. Sharma, H.M., Geer, J.C. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Concanavalin A binds to puffs in polytene chromosomes. Kurth, P.D., Bustin, M., Moudrianakis, E.N. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Transfection of the CD8 gene enhances T-cell recognition. Dembić, Z., Haas, W., Zamoyska, R., Parnes, J., Steinmetz, M., von Boehmer, H. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Saccadic oscillations facilitate ocular perfusion from the avian pecten. Pettigrew, J.D., Wallman, J., Wildsoet, C.F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Energy transfer between two peptides bound to one MHC class II molecule. Tampé, R., Clark, B.R., McConnell, H.M. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Microtubule organization and dynamics dependent on microtubule-associated proteins. Hirokawa, N. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Gap junctional communication in the post-implantation mouse embryo. Lo, C.W., Gilula, N.B. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Gap junctional communication in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Lo, C.W., Gilula, N.B. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Phagosome acidification blocked by intracellular Toxoplasma gondii. Sibley, L.D., Weidner, E., Krahenbuhl, J.L. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. A tumor-homing peptide with a targeting specificity related to lymphatic vessels. Laakkonen, P., Porkka, K., Hoffman, J.A., Ruoslahti, E. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Surface functions during Mitosis I: phagocytosis, pinocytosis and mobility of surface-bound Con A. Berlin, R.D., Oliver, J.M., Walter, R.J. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  31. The effect of environmental pH on the proton motive force of Helicobacter pylori. Meyer-Rosberg, K., Scott, D.R., Rex, D., Melchers, K., Sachs, G. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Specificity of gap junction communication among human mammary cells and connexin transfectants in culture. Tomasetto, C., Neveu, M.J., Daley, J., Horan, P.K., Sager, R. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Immunofluorescence evidence for the absence of histone H1 in a mitotically dividing, genetically inactive nucleus. Johmann, C.A., Gorovsky, M.A. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Co-migration and internalization of transferrin and its receptor on K562 cells. Enns, C.A., Larrick, J.W., Suomalainen, H., Schroder, J., Sussman, H.H. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  35. Hyaluronan (HA) fragments induce chemokine gene expression in alveolar macrophages. The role of HA size and CD44. McKee, C.M., Penno, M.B., Cowman, M., Burdick, M.D., Strieter, R.M., Bao, C., Noble, P.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Rescue of mutants of the tumor suppressor p53 in cancer cells by a designed peptide. Issaeva, N., Friedler, A., Bozko, P., Wiman, K.G., Fersht, A.R., Selivanova, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Single cell studies on the role of B-cell stimulatory factor 1 in B-cell activation. Alderson, M.R., Pike, B.L., Nossal, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Human bone marrow non-B, non-T cells produce interleukin 4 in response to cross-linkage of Fc epsilon and Fc gamma receptors. Piccinni, M.P., Macchia, D., Parronchi, P., Giudizi, M.G., Bani, D., Alterini, R., Grossi, A., Ricci, M., Maggi, E., Romagnani, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Characterization of a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor: evidence of immunological cross-reactivity with the TNF receptor. Seckinger, P., Zhang, J.H., Hauptmann, B., Dayer, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Intercellular communication in pancreatic islet monolayer cultures: a microfluorometric study. Kohen, E., Kohen, C., Thorell, B., Mintz, D.H., Rabinovitch, A. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  41. Hepatitis B antigen and polymyositis. Mihas, A.A., Kirby, J.D., Kent, S.P. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  42. Ocular manifestations of gravity inversion. Friberg, T.R., Weinreb, R.N. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  43. Treatment of allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by antisense-induced local blockade of GATA-3 expression. Finotto, S., De Sanctis, G.T., Lehr, H.A., Herz, U., Buerke, M., Schipp, M., Bartsch, B., Atreya, R., Schmitt, E., Galle, P.R., Renz, H., Neurath, M.F. J. Exp. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
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