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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Stimulation of gene induction and cell growth by the Ras effector Rlf.

Rlf is a ubiquitously expressed distinct relative of RalGDS that interacts with active Ras in vitro. We now demonstrate that Rlf, when co-expressed with Ras mutants, associates in vivo with RasV12 and the effector-domain mutant RasV12G37, but not with RasV12E38 or RasV12C40. Rlf exhibits guanine nucleotide exchange activity towards the small GTPase Ral and, importantly, Rlf- induced Ral activation is stimulated by active Ras. In addition, RasV12 and RasV12G37 synergize with Rlf in the transcriptional activation of the c-fos promoter. Rlf, when targeted to the plasma membrane using the Ras farnesyl attachment site (Rlf-CAAX), is constitutively active, inducing both Ral activation and c-fos promoter activity. Rlf-CAAX-induced gene expression is insensitive to dominant negative Ras and the MEK inhibitor PD98059, and involves activation of the serum response element. Furthermore, expression of Rlf-CAAX is sufficient to induce proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells under low-serum conditions. These data demonstrate that Rlf is an effector of Ras which functions as an exchange factor for Ral. Rlf mediates a distinct Ras-induced signalling pathway to gene induction. Finally, a constitutively active form of Rlf can stimulate transcriptional activation and cell growth.[1]


  1. Stimulation of gene induction and cell growth by the Ras effector Rlf. Wolthuis, R.M., de Ruiter, N.D., Cool, R.H., Bos, J.L. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
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