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Gene Review

Ralgds  -  ral guanine nucleotide dissociation...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Gnds, Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator, Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor, RalGDS, RalGEF, ...
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Disease relevance of Ralgds

  • Reovirus oncolysis: the Ras/RalGEF/p38 pathway dictates host cell permissiveness to reovirus infection [1].
  • Dominant negative RalB inhibited Ras(12V,37G)-activated invasion and metastasis, demonstrating the necessity of the RalGEF pathway for a fully transformed phenotype [2].
  • To identify new leukemia inhibitory factor-induced genes, we have performed representational difference analysis using M1 mouse myeloid leukemia cells and cloned RalGDS [3].

High impact information on Ralgds

  • Only the RalGDS 37G-N-Ras protein protected the N-Ras knockout cells from apoptosis and restored transient rather than sustained JNK activation [4].
  • The generality of the role of the RalGEF pathway in metastasis is supported by the finding that Ras(12V,37G) increased the invasiveness of epithelial cells as well as fibroblasts [2].
  • In contrast, 3T3 cells transformed by Ras(12V,37G), a Ras effector mutant that activates RalGEF but not Raf or P13 kinase, formed aggressive, infiltrative metastasis [2].
  • In addition, we show that growth factor-induced, Ras-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is abolished by inhibitory mutants of the RalGEF-Ral pathway [5].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K, but not RalGDS, is an important mediator of cell proliferation by TC21 [6].

Biological context of Ralgds

  • Although a point mutation in the RBD of RalGDS, which abrogates binding to Ras, renders RalGDS independent to activated Ras, an artificially membrane-targeted version of RalGDS lacking its RBD could still be activated by Ras [7].
  • Mice lacking RalGDS are defective in tumor formation, possibly because of increased apoptosis in Ras-driven tumors [8].
  • Experiments performed in cells isolated from skin tumors suggest that RalGDS mediates cell survival through the activation of the JNK/SAPK pathway [9].
  • As additional evidence for this, we show that H-Ras G12V,E37G inhibits the expression of troponin I-Luc, an SRF-independent muscle-specific reporter gene, whereas RalGDS and RalGDS CAAX do not [10].
  • A role for RalGDS and a novel Ras effector in the Ras-mediated inhibition of skeletal myogenesis [10].

Anatomical context of Ralgds


Associations of Ralgds with chemical compounds

  • To understand the specificity of Ras signaling, we investigated the activation of RalGDS, one of the Ras effector proteins with guanine-nucleotide exchange factor activity for Ral [7].
  • Cytosolic GTP-bound Ras mutants could be used to inhibit particular Ras effectors by introducing additional mutations (T35S, E37G or Y40C) that permit them to associate selectively with and inhibit Raf, RalGDS, or phosphoinositide 3-kinase, respectively [15].
  • The best understood Ras effectors are serine/threonine kinases of the Raf family, but other candidate Ras effectors, including a Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) have also been identified [16].
  • It comprises a C1 domain homologous to PKC and an RA domain similar to the Ras effectors AF-6 and RalGDS [17].

Regulatory relationships of Ralgds

  • RalGDS does not significantly enhance MAP kinase activation by activated Raf, suggesting that the cooperativity in focus formation is due to a distinct pathway acting downstream of Ras and parallel to Raf [11].
  • RalGDS and an activated Rac (RacG12V) did not act synergistically to stimulate c-fos-luciferase expression [14].

Other interactions of Ralgds

  • However, comparison of the putatively interacting regions revealed structural differences which are proposed to be responsible for the different substrate affinities of Rlf-, RalGDS-, and Raf-RBD [18].
  • To investigate the role of signaling by the small GTPase Ral, we have generated mice deficient for RalGDS, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates Ral [9].
  • The Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator (RalGDS) was isolated from a screen for Ras-binding proteins that specifically interact with a Ras effector-loop mutant, ras(12V,37G), that uncouples Ras from activation of Raf1 [11].
  • JAK/STAT3-dependent activation of the RalGDS/Ral pathway in M1 mouse myeloid leukemia cells [3].
  • M-Ras interacted poorly in a yeast two-hybrid assay with multiple Ras effectors, including c-Raf-1, A-Raf, B-Raf, phosphoinositol-3 kinase delta, RalGDS, and Rin1 [19].


  1. Reovirus oncolysis: the Ras/RalGEF/p38 pathway dictates host cell permissiveness to reovirus infection. Norman, K.L., Hirasawa, K., Yang, A.D., Shields, M.A., Lee, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Signal pathways which promote invasion and metastasis: critical and distinct contributions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Ral-specific guanine exchange factor pathways. Ward, Y., Wang, W., Woodhouse, E., Linnoila, I., Liotta, L., Kelly, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. JAK/STAT3-dependent activation of the RalGDS/Ral pathway in M1 mouse myeloid leukemia cells. Senga, T., Iwamoto, T., Kitamura, T., Miyake, Y., Hamaguchi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Cellular N-Ras promotes cell survival by downregulation of Jun N-terminal protein kinase and p38. Wolfman, J.C., Palmby, T., Der, C.J., Wolfman, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Ras-dependent regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation is mediated by the Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Ral pathway. de Ruiter, N.D., Wolthuis, R.M., van Dam, H., Burgering, B.M., Bos, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not RalGDS, in TC21/R-Ras2-mediated transformation. Murphy, G.A., Graham, S.M., Morita, S., Reks, S.E., Rogers-Graham, K., Vojtek, A., Kelley, G.G., Der, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The activation of RalGDS can be achieved independently of its Ras binding domain. Implications of an activation mechanism in Ras effector specificity and signal distribution. Linnemann, T., Kiel, C., Herter, P., Herrmann, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. RalGDS comes of age. Rodriguez-Viciana, P., McCormick, F. Cancer Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. RalGDS is required for tumor formation in a model of skin carcinogenesis. González-García, A., Pritchard, C.A., Paterson, H.F., Mavria, G., Stamp, G., Marshall, C.J. Cancer Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. A role for RalGDS and a novel Ras effector in the Ras-mediated inhibition of skeletal myogenesis. Ramocki, M.B., White, M.A., Konieczny, S.F., Taparowsky, E.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. A role for the Ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator in mediating Ras-induced transformation. White, M.A., Vale, T., Camonis, J.H., Schaefer, E., Wigler, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. Matsubara, K., Kishida, S., Matsuura, Y., Kitayama, H., Noda, M., Kikuchi, A. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of myeloid cell growth by distinct effectors of Ras. Matsuguchi, T., Kraft, A.S. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Synergistic activation of c-fos promoter activity by Raf and Ral GDP dissociation stimulator. Okazaki, M., Kishida, S., Hinoi, T., Hasegawa, T., Tamada, M., Kataoka, T., Kikuchi, A. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. A distinct class of dominant negative Ras mutants: cytosolic GTP-bound Ras effector domain mutants that inhibit Ras signaling and transformation and enhance cell adhesion. Fiordalisi, J.J., Holly, S.P., Johnson, R.L., Parise, L.V., Cox, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification and characterization of mutations in Ha-Ras that selectively decrease binding to cRaf-1. Winkler, D.G., Johnson, J.C., Cooper, J.A., Vojtek, A.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. GTP-Ras disrupts the intramolecular complex of C1 and RA domains of Nore1. Harjes, E., Harjes, S., Wohlgemuth, S., Müller, K.H., Krieger, E., Herrmann, C., Bayer, P. Structure (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure determination of the Ras-binding domain of the Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rlf. Esser, D., Bauer, B., Wolthuis, R.M., Wittinghofer, A., Cool, R.H., Bayer, P. Biochemistry (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. M-Ras/R-Ras3, a transforming ras protein regulated by Sos1, GRF1, and p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein, interacts with the putative Ras effector AF6. Quilliam, L.A., Castro, A.F., Rogers-Graham, K.S., Martin, C.B., Der, C.J., Bi, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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