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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by the disulfiram metabolite S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl sulfoxide: structural characterization of the enzyme adduct by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

S-Methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl sulfoxide (MeDTC-SO) is a known metabolite of the aversion therapy drug disulfiram (DSF). MeDTC-SO is also a potent inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (hmALDH) with an IC50 of 1.5 microM. Inhibition of the enzyme by MeDTC-SO resulted in the addition of approximately 100 Da to the molecular mass of the intact protein, as determined by on-line HPLC-electrospray ionization MS (LC-MS). Dialysis of the inhibited protein did not reverse the inhibition, and the molecular mass of 54,533 Da (+/- 0.01%) remained unchanged, indicating that a covalent modification of the protein had occurred. Proteolytic digestion of hmALDH under basic conditions using trypsin at pH 7.8 revealed that the adduct was base labile. However, treating the adducted protein with endopeptidase-Glu-C at pH 3.7 produced a peptide adduct at MH+ = 4924, tentatively attributable to a carbamoylated peptide. This peptide contains three adjacent cysteines, one of which has been implicated as a key amino acid in the highly conserved active site region of ALDH. A pepsin digestion of hmALDH carried out at pH 3.7 and subsequent LC-MS analysis revealed an ion at MH2(2+) = 501.5, corresponding to the carbamoylated peptide FNQGQC1C2C3. This peptide contains the same adjacent active site cysteines. This latter peptide was subjected to LC-MS/MS, which enabled us to determine that the site of carbamoylation was at Cys2. The MS/MS product ion data also confirmed the presence of a carbamoyl group as the adduct species.[1]


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