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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Discovery of a human liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor that lowers blood glucose in vivo.

An inhibitor of human liver glycogen phosphorylase a (HLGPa) has been identified and characterized in vitro and in vivo. This substance, [R-(R*, S*)]-5-chloro-N-[3-(dimethylamino)-2-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)pr opyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide (CP-91149), inhibited HLGPa with an IC50 of 0.13 microM in the presence of 7.5 mM glucose. CP-91149 resembles caffeine, a known allosteric phosphorylase inhibitor, in that it is 5- to 10-fold less potent in the absence of glucose. Further analysis, however, suggests that CP-91149 and caffeine are kinetically distinct. Functionally, CP-91149 inhibited glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated rat hepatocytes (P < 0.05 at 10-100 microM) and in primary human hepatocytes (2.1 microM IC50). In vivo, oral administration of CP-91149 to diabetic ob/ob mice at 25-50 mg/kg resulted in rapid (3 h) glucose lowering by 100-120 mg/dl (P < 0.001) without producing hypoglycemia. Further, CP-91149 treatment did not lower glucose levels in normoglycemic, nondiabetic mice. In ob/ob mice pretreated with 14C-glucose to label liver glycogen, CP-91149 administration reduced 14C-glycogen breakdown, confirming that glucose lowering resulted from inhibition of glycogenolysis in vivo. These findings support the use of CP-91149 in investigating glycogenolytic versus gluconeogenic flux in hepatic glucose production, and they demonstrate that glycogenolysis inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.[1]


  1. Discovery of a human liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor that lowers blood glucose in vivo. Martin, W.H., Hoover, D.J., Armento, S.J., Stock, I.A., McPherson, R.K., Danley, D.E., Stevenson, R.W., Barrett, E.J., Treadway, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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