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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hypoglycemia


Psychiatry related information on Hypoglycemia


High impact information on Hypoglycemia


Chemical compound and disease context of Hypoglycemia


Biological context of Hypoglycemia


Anatomical context of Hypoglycemia


Gene context of Hypoglycemia

  • Fah-deficient mice die within 12 hr after birth from hypoglycemia and liver dysfunction [34].
  • Arx-deficient animals are born at the expected Mendelian frequency, but develop early-onset hypoglycemia, dehydration, and weakness, and die 2 d after birth [35].
  • In 25 of 28 patients with this type of hypoglycemia we found 1.5-8-fold elevated serum levels of immunoreactive big (15-25 kD), but decreased levels of normal IGF II [36].
  • Conclusions: low GH and/or insulin during IGF I infusion and in extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia enhance expression of IGFBP-2 and favor partition of IGFBP-3 into the small complex [37].
  • Insr ablation in approximately 80% of cells caused extreme growth retardation, lipoatrophy, and hypoglycemia, a clinical constellation that resembles the human syndrome of leprechaunism [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hypoglycemia


  1. Glucose counterregulation and waning of insulin in the Somogyi phenomenon (posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia). Bolli, G.B., Gottesman, I.S., Campbell, P.J., Haymond, M.W., Cryer, P.E., Gerich, J.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Mithramycin for hypoglycemia in malignant insulinoma. Kiang, D.T., Frenning, D.H., Bauer, G.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Brain glucose uptake and unawareness of hypoglycemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Boyle, P.J., Kempers, S.F., O'Connor, A.M., Nagy, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. A comparison of glyburide and insulin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Langer, O., Conway, D.L., Berkus, M.D., Xenakis, E.M., Gonzales, O. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Synthesis and secretion of insulin-like growth factor II by a leiomyosarcoma with associated hypoglycemia. Daughaday, W.H., Emanuele, M.A., Brooks, M.H., Barbato, A.L., Kapadia, M., Rotwein, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Flexible intensive insulin therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes and high risk for severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis. Sämann, A., Mühlhauser, I., Bender, R., Hunger-Dathe, W., Kloos, C., Müller, U.A. Diabetes. Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Cognitive and neural hippocampal effects of long-term moderate recurrent hypoglycemia. McNay, E.C., Williamson, A., McCrimmon, R.J., Sherwin, R.S. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Individual differences in neurobehavioral disruption during mild and moderate hypoglycemia in adults with IDDM. Gonder-Frederick, L.A., Cox, D.J., Driesen, N.R., Ryan, C.M., Clarke, W.L. Diabetes (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Hypoglycemic thresholds for cognitive dysfunction in IDDM. Blackman, J.D., Towle, V.L., Sturis, J., Lewis, G.F., Spire, J.P., Polonsky, K.S. Diabetes (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose tolerance testing in panic disorder. Uhde, T.W., Vittone, B.J., Post, R.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of antecedent hypoglycemia on cognitive function and on glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory hormone secretion in healthy humans. Mellman, M.J., Davis, M.R., Brisman, M., Shamoon, H. Diabetes Care (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Mutations in MRAP, encoding a new interacting partner of the ACTH receptor, cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. Metherell, L.A., Chapple, J.P., Cooray, S., David, A., Becker, C., Rüschendorf, F., Naville, D., Begeot, M., Khoo, B., Nürnberg, P., Huebner, A., Cheetham, M.E., Clark, A.J. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The deoxyguanosine kinase gene is mutated in individuals with depleted hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA. Mandel, H., Szargel, R., Labay, V., Elpeleg, O., Saada, A., Shalata, A., Anbinder, Y., Berkowitz, D., Hartman, C., Barak, M., Eriksson, S., Cohen, N. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease. Westphal, C.H., Muller, L., Zhou, A., Zhu, X., Bonner-Weir, S., Schambelan, M., Steiner, D.F., Lindberg, I., Leder, P. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Decreased epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia during sleep. Jones, T.W., Porter, P., Sherwin, R.S., Davis, E.A., O'Leary, P., Frazer, F., Byrne, G., Stick, S., Tamborlane, W.V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy and mutations in the sulfonylurea receptor. Dunne, M.J., Kane, C., Shepherd, R.M., Sanchez, J.A., James, R.F., Johnson, P.R., Aynsley-Green, A., Lu, S., Clement, J.P., Lindley, K.J., Seino, S., Aguilar-Bryan, L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. Causes and outcomes. Fischer, K.F., Lees, J.A., Newman, J.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Relation of counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia in type I diabetics. Polonsky, K., Bergenstal, R., Pons, G., Schneider, M., Jaspan, J., Rubenstein, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Preserved insulin secretion and insulin independence in recipients of islet autografts. Pyzdrowski, K.L., Kendall, D.M., Halter, J.B., Nakhleh, R.E., Sutherland, D.E., Robertson, R.P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Propranolol-associated hypoglycemia. Lawrence, A.M., Hagen, T.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery is not accompanied by islet hyperplasia or increased beta-cell turnover. Meier, J.J., Butler, A.E., Galasso, R., Butler, P.C. Diabetes. Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Sleep loss alters basal metabolic hormone secretion and modulates the dynamic counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. Schmid, S.M., Hallschmid, M., Jauch-Chara, K., Bandorf, N., Born, J., Schultes, B. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Regional brain activation during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. Musen, G., Simonson, D.C., Bolo, N.R., Driscoll, A., Weinger, K., Raji, A., Théberge, J., Renshaw, P.F., Jacobson, A.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  24. Hypoglycemia during diarrhea in childhood. Prevalence, pathophysiology, and outcome. Bennish, M.L., Azad, A.K., Rahman, O., Phillips, R.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. To eat or to sleep? Orexin in the regulation of feeding and wakefulness. Willie, J.T., Chemelli, R.M., Sinton, C.M., Yanagisawa, M. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. PGC-1 promotes insulin resistance in liver through PPAR-alpha-dependent induction of TRB-3. Koo, S.H., Satoh, H., Herzig, S., Lee, C.H., Hedrick, S., Kulkarni, R., Evans, R.M., Olefsky, J., Montminy, M. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Physiology of BDNF: focus on hypothalamic function. Tapia-Arancibia, L., Rage, F., Givalois, L., Arancibia, S. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Early posthypoglycemic insulin resistance in man is mainly an effect of beta-adrenergic stimulation. Attvall, S., Eriksson, B.M., Fowelin, J., von Schenck, H., Lager, I., Smith, U. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Tissue-specific deletion of Foxa2 in pancreatic beta cells results in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Sund, N.J., Vatamaniuk, M.Z., Casey, M., Ang, S.L., Magnuson, M.A., Stoffers, D.A., Matschinsky, F.M., Kaestner, K.H. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Increased epinephrine and skeletal muscle responses to hypoglycemia in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Shamoon, H., Friedman, S., Canton, C., Zacharowicz, L., Hu, M., Rossetti, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Glucagon, catecholamine and pancreatic polypeptide secretion in type I diabetic recipients of pancreas allografts. Diem, P., Redmon, J.B., Abid, M., Moran, A., Sutherland, D.E., Halter, J.B., Robertson, R.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Prevention of an increase in plasma cortisol during hypoglycemia preserves subsequent counterregulatory responses. Davis, S.N., Shavers, C., Davis, B., Costa, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Glucagon response to hypoglycemia in sympathectomized man. Palmer, J.P., Henry, D.P., Benson, J.W., Johnson, D.G., Ensinck, J.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Loss of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase is responsible for the neonatal hepatic dysfunction phenotype of lethal albino mice. Grompe, M., al-Dhalimy, M., Finegold, M., Ou, C.N., Burlingame, T., Kennaway, N.G., Soriano, P. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Opposing actions of Arx and Pax4 in endocrine pancreas development. Collombat, P., Mansouri, A., Hecksher-Sorensen, J., Serup, P., Krull, J., Gradwohl, G., Gruss, P. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Can "big" insulin-like growth factor II in serum of tumor patients account for the development of extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia? Zapf, J., Futo, E., Peter, M., Froesch, E.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Regulation of binding proteins for insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in humans. Increased expression of IGF binding protein 2 during IGF I treatment of healthy adults and in patients with extrapancreatic tumor hypoglycemia. Zapf, J., Schmid, C., Guler, H.P., Waldvogel, M., Hauri, C., Futo, E., Hossenlopp, P., Binoux, M., Froesch, E.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Mosaic analysis of insulin receptor function. Kitamura, T., Kitamura, Y., Nakae, J., Giordano, A., Cinti, S., Kahn, C.R., Efstratiadis, A., Accili, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Blood glucose measurements during symptomatic episodes in patients with suspected postprandial hypoglycemia. Palardy, J., Havrankova, J., Lepage, R., Matte, R., Bélanger, R., D'Amour, P., Ste-Marie, L.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Glucose utilization in a patient with hepatoma and hypoglycemia. Assessment by a positron emission tomography. Eastman, R.C., Carson, R.E., Orloff, D.G., Cochran, C.S., Perdue, J.F., Rechler, M.M., Lanau, F., Roberts, C.T., Shapiro, J., Roth, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Influence of vagal integrity on gastrin and somatostatin release in dogs. Greenberg, G.R. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. The feasibility of intensive insulin management in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Implications of the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study on Glycemic Control and Complications in NIDDM. Colwell, J.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
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