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Chemical Compound Review

Durvitan     1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6- dione

Synonyms: caffeine, Dexitac, Vivarin, Caffedrine, Quick-Pep, ...
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Disease relevance of Vivarin


Psychiatry related information on Vivarin


High impact information on Vivarin

  • Targeted aequorins with different Ca(2+) affinities show that mitochondria undergo surprisingly rapid millimolar Ca(2+) transients, upon stimulation of chromaffin cells with ACh, high K(+), or caffeine [13].
  • The effects of caffeine and anesthetic agents on MHS and normal muscle are also discussed to better understand the basis for the in vitro clinical test for this disorder and mechanisms responsible for the initiation and maintenance of MH episodes in susceptible individuals [14].
  • BACKGROUND: Some epidemiologic studies have suggested that the ingestion of caffeine increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, but the results have been inconsistent [15].
  • By coexpressing the RyR and FKBP12 in insect cells, we have demonstrated that FKBP12 modulates channel gating by increasing channels with full conductance levels (by > 400%), decreasing open probability after caffeine activation (from 0.63 +/- 0.09 to 0.04 +/- 0.02), and increasing mean open time (from 4.4 +/- 0.6 ms to 75 +/- 41 ms) [16].
  • Moreover, okadaic acid and caffeine, which uncouple the dependence of mitosis on the completion of S phase, increase unphosphorylated p34cdc2 by attenuating tyrosine kinase function [17].

Chemical compound and disease context of Vivarin


Biological context of Vivarin


Anatomical context of Vivarin

  • CONCLUSIONS: The ingestion of caffeine may increase the risk of an early spontaneous abortion among non-smoking women carrying fetuses with normal karyotypes [15].
  • We compared the dose-response relations of caffeine, regular coffee and decaffeinated coffee for gastric acid secretion and sphincter pressure in normal subjects [5].
  • To explore this, chick embryonic myocardial cell aggregates were voltage-clamped during abrupt exposure to caffeine, which is known to release Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum [25].
  • When rat soleus muscle (SOL, a slow muscle) is dually innervated with a fast nerve, it acquires some properties of a fast muscle, that is, low sensitivity to caffeine and high glycogen content [26].
  • In caffeine-treated sympathetic ganglion cells, however, Ca2+ released from an intracellular Ca2+ reservoir site analogous to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of the muscle (see ref. 12) causes activation of the GK, which results in slow oscillatory hyperpolarisations (caffeine hyperpolarisation, C-hyperpolarisation) [27].

Associations of Vivarin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Vivarin

  • Expression of the mutant RYR1 cDNA produced channels with increased caffeine sensitivity and a significantly reduced maximal level of Ca(2+) release [33].
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) cause inhibition of Cdc45 loading and initiation of DNA replication and that caffeine, as well as immunodepletion of either ATM or ATR, abolishes this inhibition [34].
  • Pretreatment of normal and AT fibroblasts with caffeine or UCN-01, inhibitors of ATR (AT mutated and Rad3 related) and Chk1, respectively, abolished the S checkpoint response to UVC [35].
  • At permissive temperatures, bro1 mutants are sensitive to caffeine and respond abnormally to nutrient limitation [36].
  • Strains lacking YAF9 are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents, cold, and caffeine, and the YEATS domain is required for full Yaf9 function [37].
  • Multivariate analysis revealed no evidence of any interaction effects of caffeine with CYP1A2 (P=0.956) [38].
  • Our findings show that the probability of having the ADORA2A 1083TT genotype decreases as habitual caffeine consumption increases [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vivarin


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  11. Smoking eliminates the protective effect of oral estrogens on the risk for hip fracture among women. Kiel, D.P., Baron, J.A., Anderson, J.J., Hannan, M.T., Felson, D.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of caffeine are more marked on daytime recovery sleep than on nocturnal sleep. Carrier, J., Fernandez-Bolanos, M., Robillard, R., Dumont, M., Paquet, J., Selmaoui, B., Filipini, D. Neuropsychopharmacology (2007) [Pubmed]
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  16. Stabilization of calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor) function by FK506-binding protein. Brillantes, A.B., Ondrias, K., Scott, A., Kobrinsky, E., Ondriasová, E., Moschella, M.C., Jayaraman, T., Landers, M., Ehrlich, B.E., Marks, A.R. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Coupling of mitosis to the completion of S phase in Xenopus occurs via modulation of the tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates p34cdc2. Smythe, C., Newport, J.W. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. The bronchodilator effects and pharmacokinetics of caffeine in asthma. Becker, A.B., Simons, K.J., Gillespie, C.A., Simons, F.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Ryanodine receptor gene is a candidate for predisposition to malignant hyperthermia. MacLennan, D.H., Duff, C., Zorzato, F., Fujii, J., Phillips, M., Korneluk, R.G., Frodis, W., Britt, B.A., Worton, R.G. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. PTC taste blindness and the taste of caffeine. Hall, M.J., Bartoshuk, L.M., Cain, W.S., Stevens, J.C. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle: blockade by high extracellular concentrations of calcium buffers. Barrett, N., Barrett, E.F. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase I-II trial of cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine, and caffeine. Dougherty, J.B., Kelsen, D., Kemeny, N., Magill, G., Botet, J., Niedzwiecki, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. Robertson, D., Frölich, J.C., Carr, R.K., Watson, J.T., Hollifield, J.W., Shand, D.G., Oates, J.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of dihydrocodeine, alcohol, and caffeine on breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and normal blood gases. Woodcock, A.A., Gross, E.R., Gellert, A., Shah, S., Johnson, M., Geddes, D.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Caffeine induces a transient inward current in cultured cardiac cells. Clusin, W.T. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Synthesis of fast myosin induced by fast ectopic innervation of rat soleus muscle is restricted to the ectopic endplate region. Salviati, G., Biasia, E., Aloisi, M. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Oscillation of [Ca2+]i-linked K+ conductance in bullfrog sympathetic ganglion cell is sensitive to intracellular anions. Morita, K., Koketsu, K., Kuba, K. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
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  30. Efficacy and safety of ephedra and ephedrine for weight loss and athletic performance: a meta-analysis. Shekelle, P.G., Hardy, M.L., Morton, S.C., Maglione, M., Mojica, W.A., Suttorp, M.J., Rhodes, S.L., Jungvig, L., Gagné, J. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
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  32. Increases in cerebrospinal fluid caffeine concentration are associated with favorable outcome after severe traumatic brain injury in humans. Sachse, K.T., Jackson, E.K., Wisniewski, S.R., Gillespie, D.G., Puccio, A.M., Clark, R.S., Dixon, C.E., Kochanek, P.M. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  33. An autosomal dominant congenital myopathy with cores and rods is associated with a neomutation in the RYR1 gene encoding the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Monnier, N., Romero, N.B., Lerale, J., Nivoche, Y., Qi, D., MacLennan, D.H., Fardeau, M., Lunardi, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Protein phosphatase 2A antagonizes ATM and ATR in a Cdk2- and Cdc7-independent DNA damage checkpoint. Petersen, P., Chou, D.M., You, Z., Hunter, T., Walter, J.C., Walter, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. An ATR- and Chk1-dependent S checkpoint inhibits replicon initiation following UVC-induced DNA damage. Heffernan, T.P., Simpson, D.A., Frank, A.R., Heinloth, A.N., Paules, R.S., Cordeiro-Stone, M., Kaufmann, W.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  37. The Yaf9 component of the SWR1 and NuA4 complexes is required for proper gene expression, histone H4 acetylation, and Htz1 replacement near telomeres. Zhang, H., Richardson, D.O., Roberts, D.N., Utley, R., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Côté, J., Cairns, B.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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