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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Two efficiency elements flanking the editing site of cytidine 6666 in the apolipoprotein B mRNA support mooring-dependent editing.

Normally, apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing deaminates a single cytidine (C6666) in apoB mRNA. However, when the catalytic subunit of the editing enzyme complex, APOBEC-1, was overexpressed in transgenic mice and rabbits, numerous cytidines in the apoB mRNA and in a novel mRNA, NAT1, were aberrantly hyperedited, and the animals developed liver dysplasia and hepatocellular carcinomas. To identify the RNA motifs in the apoB mRNA that support physiological editing and those that support aberrant hyperediting, we constructed rabbit apoB RNA substrates and tested them in vitro for physiological editing and hyperediting. Three previously unrecognized RNA elements that are critical for efficient physiological editing at C6666 were identified. In concert with the mooring sequence (6671-6681), the 5' efficiency element (6609-6628), an A-rich region (6629-6640), and the 3' efficiency element (6717-6747) increased editing at C6666. The 5' efficiency element was the most potent, elevating physiological editing to wild-type levels in combination with the mooring sequence. The 3' efficiency element was somewhat less important but increased physiological editing to levels approaching wild type. These elements encompass 139 nucleotides on the apoB RNA transcript and are sufficient for editing with the efficiency of full-length apoB mRNA. Furthermore, a distal downstream apoB region (6747-6824) may function as a recognition element in the apoB mRNA. Hyperediting at C6802 in the rabbit apoB mRNA is mediated by RNA elements similar to those required for normal physiological editing at C6666. Similarly sized upstream and downstream flanking regions of C6802 are necessary for hyperediting in combination with a degenerate mooring sequence.[1]


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