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Gene Review

Apob  -  apolipoprotein B

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI315052, Apo B-100, Apolipoprotein B-100, apob-100, apob-48
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Disease relevance of Apob


High impact information on Apob


Chemical compound and disease context of Apob


Biological context of Apob

  • The gene for apoB, designated Apob, resides in the proximal region of chromosome 12 linked to genes for ribosomal RNA and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase [13].
  • 9. In contrast, apoB-27.6 heterozygotes (Apob(27.6/+)) had lower hepatic TG secretion rates and higher liver TG contents than both apoB-38.9 heterozygotes (Apob(38.9/+)) and apoB wild type mice (Apob(+/+)) [14].
  • Expression analyses showed that the proximal Apob gene in the duplicated locus was preferentially expressed in both tissues suggesting a limitation of tissue-specific enhancer function [15].
  • While the existence of an additional liver-specific enhancer element is unknown, our findings suggest the presence of an additional enhancer outside the duplicated region, and that Apob gene expression is more complicated than previously thought [15].
  • While we successfully generated mice carrying the Apob gene duplication, the amount of the total Apob mRNA was not increased in their liver [15].

Anatomical context of Apob


Associations of Apob with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Apob


Regulatory relationships of Apob


Other interactions of Apob


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Apob


  1. Exencephaly and hydrocephaly in mice with targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B (Apob) gene. Homanics, G.E., Maeda, N., Traber, M.G., Kayden, H.J., Dehart, D.B., Sulik, K.K. Teratology (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Post-transcriptional stimulation of the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich apolipoprotein B lipoproteins in a mouse with selective deficiency of brown adipose tissue, obesity, and insulin resistance. Siri, P., Candela, N., Zhang, Y.L., Ko, C., Eusufzai, S., Ginsberg, H.N., Huang, L.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonist ciprofibrate inhibits apolipoprotein B mRNA editing in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice: effects on plasma lipoproteins and the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Fu, T., Mukhopadhyay, D., Davidson, N.O., Borensztajn, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Aberrant Hepatic Expression of PPAR{gamma}2 Stimulates Hepatic Lipogenesis in a Mouse Model of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia, and Hepatic Steatosis. Zhang, Y.L., Hernandez-Ono, A., Siri, P., Weisberg, S., Conlon, D., Graham, M.J., Crooke, R.M., Huang, L.S., Ginsberg, H.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Positional cloning of the combined hyperlipidemia gene Hyplip1. Bodnar, J.S., Chatterjee, A., Castellani, L.W., Ross, D.A., Ohmen, J., Cavalcoli, J., Wu, C., Dains, K.M., Catanese, J., Chu, M., Sheth, S.S., Charugundla, K., Demant, P., West, D.B., de Jong, P., Lusis, A.J. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. CD1d function is regulated by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Brozovic, S., Nagaishi, T., Yoshida, M., Betz, S., Salas, A., Chen, D., Kaser, A., Glickman, J., Kuo, T., Little, A., Morrison, J., Corazza, N., Kim, J.Y., Colgan, S.P., Young, S.G., Exley, M., Blumberg, R.S. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Apolipoprotein B secretion and atherosclerosis are decreased in mice with phospholipid-transfer protein deficiency. Jiang, X.C., Qin, S., Qiao, C., Kawano, K., Lin, M., Skold, A., Xiao, X., Tall, A.R. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Mammalian RNA-dependent deaminases and edited mRNAs. Maas, S., Melcher, T., Seeburg, P.H. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. The role of the LDL receptor in apolipoprotein B secretion. Twisk, J., Gillian-Daniel, D.L., Tebon, A., Wang, L., Barrett, P.H., Attie, A.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Knockout of the mouse apolipoprotein B gene results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and protection against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in heterozygotes. Farese, R.V., Ruland, S.L., Flynn, L.M., Stokowski, R.P., Young, S.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of net HepG2 cell apolipoprotein B secretion by the citrus flavonoid naringenin involves activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, independent of insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation. Borradaile, N.M., de Dreu, L.E., Huff, M.W. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. High bioavailabilty of alpha-tocopherol loaded into poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in apolipoprotein B knockout mice. Yokogawa, K., Shima, Y., Hashimoto, T., Hiyajyo, M., Kadoyama, K., Ishizaki, J., Nomura, M., Miyamoto, K. Pharm. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic factors controlling structure and expression of apolipoproteins B and E in mice. Lusis, A.J., Taylor, B.A., Quon, D., Zollman, S., LeBoeuf, R.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Hypobetalipoproteinemic mice with a targeted apolipoprotein (Apo) B-27.6-specifying mutation: in vivo evidence for an important role of amino acids 1254-1744 of ApoB in lipid transport and metabolism of the apoB-containing lipoprotein. Chen, Z., Fitzgerald, R.L., Schonfeld, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Complex control of mouse apolipoprotein B gene expression revealed by targeted duplication. Hinsdale, M.E., Maeda, N. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. A gene-targeted mouse model for familial hypobetalipoproteinemia. Low levels of apolipoprotein B mRNA in association with a nonsense mutation in exon 26 of the apolipoprotein B gene. Kim, E., Ambroziak, P., Véniant, M.M., Hamilton, R.L., Young, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Blocking microsomal triglyceride transfer protein interferes with apoB secretion without causing retention or stress in the ER. Liao, W., Hui, T.Y., Young, S.G., Davis, R.A. J. Lipid Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. APP mRNA splicing is upregulated in the brain of biglycan transgenic mice. Bjelik, A., P??k??ski, M., Bereczki, E., Gonda, S., Juh??sz, A., Riman??czy, A., Zana, M., Janka, Z., S??ntha, M., K??lm??n, J. Neurochem. Int. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. A choline-deficient diet in mice inhibits neither the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in hepatocytes nor apolipoprotein B secretion. Kulinski, A., Vance, D.E., Vance, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Atherosclerosis is enhanced by testosterone deficiency and attenuated by CETP expression in transgenic mice. Casquero, A.C., Berti, J.A., Salerno, A.G., Bighetti, E.J., Cazita, P.M., Ketelhuth, D.F., Gidlund, M., Oliveira, H.C. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Hydroxytyrosol administration enhances atherosclerotic lesion development in apo e deficient mice. Acín, S., Navarro, M.A., Arbonés-Mainar, J.M., Guillén, N., Sarría, A.J., Carnicer, R., Surra, J.C., Orman, I., Segovia, J.C., Torre, R.d.e. .L., Covas, M.I., Fernández-Bolaños, J., Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V., Osada, J. J. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Apolipoprotein B RNA editing enzyme-deficient mice are viable despite alterations in lipoprotein metabolism. Morrison, J.R., Pászty, C., Stevens, M.E., Hughes, S.D., Forte, T., Scott, J., Rubin, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in human apolipoprotein B transgenic mice. Effects on lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. Kako, Y., Huang, L.S., Yang, J., Katopodis, T., Ramakrishnan, R., Goldberg, I.J. J. Lipid Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Sequence of the putative low-density lipoprotein receptor-binding regions of apolipoprotein B in mouse and hamster. Smith, T.J., Hautamaa, D., Maeda, N. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Hepatic secretion of small lipoprotein particles in apobec-1-/- mice is regulated by the LDL receptor. Nassir, F., Xie, Y., Patterson, B.W., Luo, J., Davidson, N.O. J. Lipid Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. A deficiency of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein reduces apolipoprotein B secretion. Leung, G.K., Véniant, M.M., Kim, S.K., Zlot, C.H., Raabe, M., Björkegren, J., Neese, R.A., Hellerstein, M.K., Young, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. ApoB-48 and apoB-100 differentially influence the expression of type-III hyperlipoproteinemia in APOE*2 mice. Hinsdale, M.E., Sullivan, P.M., Mezdour, H., Maeda, N. J. Lipid Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Assignment of a gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase to the proximal region of chromosome 12 in the mouse. Berger, F.G. Biochem. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Binding of low density lipoproteins to lipoprotein lipase is dependent on lipids but not on apolipoprotein B. Boren, J., Lookene, A., Makoveichuk, E., Xiang, S., Gustafsson, M., Liu, H., Talmud, P., Olivecrona, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. The fld mutation maps near to but distinct from the Apob locus on mouse chromosome 12. Rowe, L.B., Sweet, H.O., Gordon, J.I., Birkenmeier, E.H. Mamm. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Targeted modification of the apolipoprotein B gene results in hypobetalipoproteinemia and developmental abnormalities in mice. Homanics, G.E., Smith, T.J., Zhang, S.H., Lee, D., Young, S.G., Maeda, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase overexpression generates hyperalpha-lipoproteinemia and a nonatherogenic lipoprotein pattern in transgenic rabbits. Hoeg, J.M., Vaisman, B.L., Demosky, S.J., Meyn, S.M., Talley, G.D., Hoyt, R.F., Feldman, S., Bérard, A.M., Sakai, N., Wood, D., Brousseau, M.E., Marcovina, S., Brewer, H.B., Santamarina-Fojo, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of atherogenic diet consumption on lipoproteins in mouse strains C57BL/6 and C3H. Ishida, B.Y., Blanche, P.J., Nichols, A.V., Yashar, M., Paigen, B. J. Lipid Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages incubated with low density lipoprotein pretreated with cigarette smoke extract. Yokode, M., Kita, T., Arai, H., Kawai, C., Narumiya, S., Fujiwara, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Site-specific mutagenesis demonstrates that cysteine 4326 of apolipoprotein B is required for covalent linkage with apolipoprotein (a) in vivo. Callow, M.J., Rubin, E.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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