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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Altered expression of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (Gi-proteins) in experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

Guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G-proteins) play an important role in the onset and progression of malignancy. We hypothesized that alterations in inhibitory G-protein (Gi) expression and/or function may contribute to cellular invasion and formation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). H4IIE hepatoma cells were inoculated directly into the liver parenchyma of ACI strain rats, and membranes were prepared from HCC livers and adjacent nonneoplastic livers 12 days following the initial inoculation. Expression of inhibitory Gialpha proteins was determined by Western blot analysis and changes in the functional activity of these proteins confirmed by pertussis toxin catalyzed ADP ribosylation and adenylyl cyclase activity. Inhibitory Gialpha1, Gialpha1/2, and Gialpha3 protein expression was significantly elevated in HCC when compared to adjacent nonneoplastic liver and sham-operated hepatic tissue. Pertussis toxin catalyzed ADP ribosylation of Gialpha substrates was significantly enhanced in HCC concomitant with increased basal and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity following uncoupling of Gi-proteins with manganese ions. The role of Gi-proteins in cellular proliferation was confirmed using cultured H4IIE cells and normal hepatocytes. In quiescent H4IIE cells, mastoparan (Gialpha activator) increased [3H] thymidine incorporation and cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas both pertussis toxin (a Gi-protein inhibitor) and 8-bromo-cAMP inhibited mitogenesis. In contrast, in isolated cultured hepatocytes, mastoparan inhibited [3H] thymidine incorporation, while pertussis toxin and 8-bromo-cAMP were mitogenic. We conclude that HCC is associated with marked changes in Gialpha-protein expression in vivo and in vitro, direct activation of which leads to increased mitogenesis in H4IIE cells in vitro.[1]


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