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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regional analysis of the spatial patterns of Fos induction in brain following flurothyl kindling.

We have recently demonstrated that eight, daily flurothyl-induced generalized clonic seizures, followed by a four week stimulus-free interval, results in a long-lasting reduction in generalized seizure threshold and a change in the type of seizure expressed in response to flurothyl from clonic to tonic. There is a progressive increase in the probability that a mouse will express a tonic seizure during the four week interval, suggesting that prior flurothyl seizures initiate a proepileptogenic process that requires time to develop. In this study, the immunohistochemical detection of the c-fos protein ( Fos) was used to evaluate whether seizure-induced epileptogenesis resulted in regional differences in the degree of neuronal activation. Fos immunoreactivity was examined 1.5 h following either a single generalized seizure, the last of eight consecutive daily seizures or a retest seizure evoked two weeks after the last of eight seizures. In each condition, generalized seizure behaviours were elicited in C57BL/6 mice using flurothyl and classified as either "forebrain" (face and forelimb clonus) or "brainstem" (running/bouncing, treading, tonic extension). The spatial distribution of Fos induction was compared on the basis of the seizure phenotype and the seizure history. The predominant differences in Fos distribution were found to be related to the type of seizure expressed regardless of the seizure history. Furthermore, the different motor components that make up a "brainstem" seizure could not be distinguished by the pattern of Fos labelling suggesting that multiple convulsive behaviours are mediated by one anatomical system. Finally, Fos induction in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus preceded and predicted the change in seizure type from "forebrain" to "brainstem". These data support the concept that separate anatomical systems mediate the expression of the two generalized seizure phenotypes. In addition, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus may be a point of interaction between the systems and may play a role in seizure-induced neural reorganization.[1]


  1. Regional analysis of the spatial patterns of Fos induction in brain following flurothyl kindling. Samoriski, G.M., Piekut, D.T., Applegate, C.D. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
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