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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

S 16924 ((R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4] dioxin-5-Yloxy)-ethyl]-pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethanone), a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin (5-HT)1A agonist properties: I. Receptorial and neurochemical profile in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol.

S 16924 showed a pattern of interaction at multiple (>20) native, rodent and cloned, human (h) monoaminergic receptors similar to that of clozapine and different to that of haloperidol. Notably, like clozapine, the affinity of S 16924 for hD2 and hD3 receptors was modest, and it showed 5-fold higher affinity for hD4 receptors. At each of these sites, using a [35S]GTPgammaS binding procedure, S 16924, clozapine and haloperidol behaved as antagonists. In distinction to haloperidol, S 16924 shared the marked affinity of clozapine for h5-HT2A and h5-HT2C receptors. However, an important difference to clozapine (and haloperidol) was the high affinity of S 16924 for h5-HT1A receptors. At these sites, using a [35S]GTPgammaS binding model, both S 16924 and clozapine behaved as partial agonists, whereas haloperidol was inactive. In vivo, the agonist properties of S 16924 at 5-HT1A autoreceptors were revealed by its ability to potently inhibit the firing of raphe-localized serotoninergic neurones, an action reversed by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY 100,635. In contrast, clozapine and haloperidol only weakly inhibited raphe firing, and their actions were resistant to WAY 100,635. Similarly, S 16924 more potently inhibited striatal turnover of 5-HT than either clozapine or haloperidol. Reflecting its modest affinity for D2 (and D3) autoreceptors, S 16924 only weakly blocked the inhibitory influence of the dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine, upon the firing rate of ventrotegmental area-localized dopaminergic neurones. Further, S 16924 only weakly increased striatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical turnover of dopamine (DA). Clozapine was, similarly, weakly active in these models, whereas haloperidol, in line with its higher affinity at D2 (and D3) receptors, was potently active. In the frontal cortex (FCX) of freely moving rats, S 16924 dose-dependently reduced dialysate levels of 5-HT, whereas those of DA and NAD were dose-dependently increased in the same samples. In contrast, although S 16924 also suppressed 5-HT levels in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, DA levels therein were unaffected. Clozapine mimicked this selective increase in DA levels in the FCX as compared to striatum and accumbens. In contrast, haloperidol modestly increased DA levels in the FCX, striatum and accumbens to the same extent. In distinction to S 16924, clozapine and haloperidol exerted little influence upon 5-HT levels. Finally, the influence of S 16924 upon FCX levels of 5-HT, DA (and NAD) was attenuated by WAY 100,635. In conclusion, S 16924 possesses a profile of interaction at multiple monoaminergic receptors comparable to that of clozapine and distinct to that of haloperidol. In addition, S 16924 is a potent, partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. Correspondingly, acute administration of S 16924 decreases cerebral serotoninergic transmission and selectively reinforces frontocortical as compared to subcortical dopaminergic transmission. In line with these actions, S 16924 shows a distinctive profile of activity in functional (behavioral) models of potential antipsychotic activity (companion paper).[1]


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