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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and daily mortality in Toronto, Canada.

The role of ambient levels of carbon monoxide (CO) in the exacerbation of heart problems in individuals with both cardiac and other diseases was examined by comparing daily variations in CO levels and daily fluctuations in nonaccidental mortality in metropolitan Toronto for the 15-year period 1980-1994. After adjusting the mortality time series for day-of-the-week effects, nonparametic smoothed functions of day of study and weather variables, statistically significant positive associations were observed between daily fluctuations in mortality and ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, coefficient of haze, total suspended particulate matter, sulfates, and estimated PM2.5 and PM10. However, the effects of this complex mixture of air pollutants could be almost completely explained by the levels of CO and total suspended particulates (TSP). Of the 40 daily nonaccidental deaths in metropolitan Toronto, 4.7% (95% confidence interval of 3.4%-6.1%) could be attributable to CO while TSP contributed an additional 1.0% (95% confidence interval of 0.2-1.9%), based on changes in CO and TSP equivalent to their average concentrations. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between CO and mortality in all seasons, age, and disease groupings examined. Carbon monoxide should be considered as a potential public health risk to urban populations at current ambient exposure levels.[1]


  1. The association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and daily mortality in Toronto, Canada. Burnett, R.T., Cakmak, S., Raizenne, M.E., Stieb, D., Vincent, R., Krewski, D., Brook, J.R., Philips, O., Ozkaynak, H. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) (1998) [Pubmed]
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