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MeSH Review

Public Health

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Disease relevance of Public Health

  • Resistance to ceftriaxone, the drug of choice for invasive salmonella disease, is a public health concern, especially with respect to children, since fluoroquinolones, which can also be used to treat this disease, are not approved for use in children [1].
  • Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels [2].
  • CONTEXT: In July 1999, due to concerns about thimerosal content, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended suspending hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination at birth except for mothers who had positive or unknown hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) status [3].
  • If these associations are related causally, ascorbic acid intake may have public health implications for control of lead toxicity [4].
  • To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984 [5].

Psychiatry related information on Public Health


High impact information on Public Health

  • Dr. Seffrin, Chief Executive Officer of the American Cancer Society, outlines the critical public health measures that the ACS is working to see included in comprehensive federal tobacco control legislation [11].
  • As a public health measure, prophylactic treatment with isoniazid has been suggested for HIV-infected persons who have anergy and are in groups with a high prevalence of tuberculosis [12].
  • Campaign contributions from the American Medical Political Action Committee to Members of Congress. For or against the public health [13]?
  • The regular provision of a supplement of vitamin A to children, at a level potentially obtainable from foods, in an area where vitamin A deficiency and under-nutrition are documented public health problems contributed substantially to children's survival; mortality was reduced on average by 54 percent [14].
  • Minocycline prophylaxis would probably have limited effectiveness as a public-health measure because of the tendency to select resistant gonococci [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Public Health


Biological context of Public Health


Anatomical context of Public Health

  • BACKGROUND: Postoperative portal vein infusion (PVI) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a well tolerated and widely applicable treatment for colorectal cancer that might have an enormous public health impact, even if it produced survival benefits of just a few per cent [26].
  • Because of the public health implications, including for the treatment of community-acquired urinary tract infections, the spread of these strains--and CTX-M-15 beta-lactamase in particular--merits close monitoring [27].
  • The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the public health implications of exposure via breast milk to cadmium, lead, and mercury for nursing infants and to provide health-based guidance [28].
  • Increased levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are associated with the development of coronary artery disease, which has become a worldwide public health problem [29].
  • Currently available pharmacotherapies for allergic diseases and asthma, which are serious public health problems, are aimed primarily at neutralizing effector molecules and inflammatory mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes or at inhibiting the function of inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and Th2 lymphocytes [30].

Associations of Public Health with chemical compounds


Gene context of Public Health

  • This group emphasized that the primary public health goal should be to diagnose hemochromatosis before symptoms appear [36].
  • CONTEXT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a major public health issue with a prediction of 12 million Americans being affected by 2025 from the present 4 million [37].
  • Because corticosteroid use is common in RA, the results of this study suggest that prednisone exposure may have important public health consequences [38].
  • In some patients COX-2 inhibitors may be safer than nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); however, the public health benefit of COX-2 inhibitors depends on their use in patients at higher than normal risk from NSAIDs [39].
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and risk of breast cancer. Public health perspectives [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Public Health


  1. Ceftriaxone-resistant salmonella infection acquired by a child from cattle. Fey, P.D., Safranek, T.J., Rupp, M.E., Dunne, E.F., Ribot, E., Iwen, P.C., Bradford, P.A., Angulo, F.J., Hinrichs, S.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. FSH directly regulates bone mass. Sun, L., Peng, Y., Sharrow, A.C., Iqbal, J., Zhang, Z., Papachristou, D.J., Zaidi, S., Zhu, L.L., Yaroslavskiy, B.B., Zhou, H., Zallone, A., Sairam, M.R., Kumar, T.R., Bo, W., Braun, J., Cardoso-Landa, L., Schaffler, M.B., Moonga, B.S., Blair, H.C., Zaidi, M. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Impact of recommendations to suspend the birth dose of hepatitis B virus vaccine. Oram, R.J., Daum, R.S., Seal, J.B., Lauderdale, D.S. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. Simon, J.A., Hudes, E.S. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters. Roscoe, R.J., Steenland, K., Halperin, W.E., Beaumont, J.J., Waxweiler, R.J. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The effectiveness of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation. A meta-analysis. Fiore, M.C., Smith, S.S., Jorenby, D.E., Baker, T.B. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Cutting into cholesterol. Cost-effective alternatives for treating hypercholesterolemia. Kinosian, B.P., Eisenberg, J.M. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. A public health model for cardiovascular risk reduction. Impact of cholesterol screening with brief nonphysician counseling. Gemson, D.H., Sloan, R.P., Messeri, P., Goldberg, I.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Implications of the World Trade Center attack for the public health and health care infrastructures. Klitzman, S., Freudenberg, N. American journal of public health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Cocaine abuse and addiction. Gawin, F.H. The Journal of family practice. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. The politics of addiction: status of the tobacco settlement. Seffrin, J.R. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A controlled trial of isoniazid in persons with anergy and human immunodeficiency virus infection who are at high risk for tuberculosis. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS. Gordin, F.M., Matts, J.P., Miller, C., Brown, L.S., Hafner, R., John, S.L., Klein, M., Vaughn, A., Besch, C.L., Perez, G., Szabo, S., El-Sadr, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Campaign contributions from the American Medical Political Action Committee to Members of Congress. For or against the public health? Sharfstein, J.M., Sharfstein, S.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. Rahmathullah, L., Underwood, B.A., Thulasiraj, R.D., Milton, R.C., Ramaswamy, K., Rahmathullah, R., Babu, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. A trial of minocycline given after exposure to prevent gonorrhea. Harrison, W.O., Hooper, R.R., Wiesner, P.J., Campbell, A.F., Karney, W.W., Reynolds, G.H., Jones, O.G., Holmes, K.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Turtle-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Effect of Public Health Action, 1970 to 1976. Cohen, M.L., Potter, M., Pollard, R., Feldman, R.A. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Lead poisoning among low-income children in Orange County, California. A need for regionally differentiated policy. Gellert, G.A., Wagner, G.A., Maxwell, R.M., Moore, D., Foster, L. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Penicillin treatment of neurosyphilis. Are recommended dosages sufficient? Yoder, F.W. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Homocysteine and vascular disease. Hankey, G.J., Eikelboom, J.W. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Acquired rifamycin monoresistance in patients with HIV-related tuberculosis treated with once-weekly rifapentine and isoniazid. Tuberculosis Trials Consortium. Vernon, A., Burman, W., Benator, D., Khan, A., Bozeman, L. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Recommendations of the Panel on Cost-effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Weinstein, M.C., Siegel, J.E., Gold, M.R., Kamlet, M.S., Russell, L.B. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene in C57BL/6 x C3H F1 mice at low exposure concentrations. Melnick, R.L., Huff, J., Chou, B.J., Miller, R.A. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program. Myers, G.L., Miller, W.G., Coresh, J., Fleming, J., Greenberg, N., Greene, T., Hostetter, T., Levey, A.S., Panteghini, M., Welch, M., Eckfeldt, J.H. Clin. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. A case study of tire crumb use on playgrounds: risk analysis and communication when major clinical knowledge gaps exist. Anderson, M.E., Kirkland, K.H., Guidotti, T.L., Rose, C. Environ. Health Perspect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation and validation of real-time reverse transcription-pcr assay using the LightCycler system for detection and quantitation of norovirus. Pang, X., Lee, B., Chui, L., Preiksaitis, J.K., Monroe, S.S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Randomized clinical trial of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil infusion in colorectal cancer (AXIS). James, R.D., Donaldson, D., Gray, R., Northover, J.M., Stenning, S.P., Taylor, I. The British journal of surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Community and hospital spread of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the UK. Woodford, N., Ward, M.E., Kaufmann, M.E., Turton, J., Fagan, E.J., James, D., Johnson, A.P., Pike, R., Warner, M., Cheasty, T., Pearson, A., Harry, S., Leach, J.B., Loughrey, A., Lowes, J.A., Warren, R.E., Livermore, D.M. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Breast-feeding exposure of infants to cadmium, lead, and mercury: a public health viewpoint. Abadin, H.G., Hibbs, B.F., Pohl, H.R. Toxicology and industrial health. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Open-label study to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fluvastatin versus bezafibrate for hypercholesterolemia. Fanghänel, G., Espinosa, J., Olivares, D., Sánchez, L., Morales, M., Martínez, L., Macías, G., Valdés, E., Hernández, G. Am. J. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Allergen immunotherapy: novel approaches in the management of allergic diseases and asthma. Campbell, D., DeKruyff, R.H., Umetsu, D.T. Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Bats, rabies and DDT. Wells, L.F., Girard, K.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Public health issues: bendectin, love canal. Paigen, B. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  33. Public health. Aluminum is put on trial as a vaccine booster. Malakoff, D. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Microbial methylation of metalloids: arsenic, antimony, and bismuth. Bentley, R., Chasteen, T.G. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Cognitive and motor outcomes of cocaine-exposed infants. Singer, L.T., Arendt, R., Minnes, S., Farkas, K., Salvator, A., Kirchner, H.L., Kliegman, R. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Strategies to increase detection of hemochromatosis. McDonnell, S.M., Witte, D.L., Cogswell, M.E., McIntyre, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Translational research on the way to effective therapy for Alzheimer disease. Rosenberg, R.N. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of hospitalization for pneumonia: associations with prednisone, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. Wolfe, F., Caplan, L., Michaud, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. National trends in cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor use since market release: nonselective diffusion of a selectively cost-effective innovation. Dai, C., Stafford, R.S., Alexander, G.C. Arch. Intern. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and risk of breast cancer. Public health perspectives. Coughlin, S.S., Khoury, M.J., Steinberg, K.K. American journal of preventive medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and cardiovascular risks. US population data. Stamler, J., Stamler, R., Neaton, J.D. Arch. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Decision analysis, public health policy, and isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for young adult tuberculin skin reactors. Moulding, T. Arch. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  43. A population survey on the prevalence of diabetes in Kin-Hu, Kinmen. Chou, P., Liao, M.J., Kuo, H.S., Hsiao, K.J., Tsai, S.T. Diabetes Care (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Report from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop on use of adult anthropometry for public health and primary health care. Seidell, J.C., Kahn, H.S., Williamson, D.F., Lissner, L., Valdez, R. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  45. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983-2002. Brooks, J.T., Sowers, E.G., Wells, J.G., Greene, K.D., Griffin, P.M., Hoekstra, R.M., Strockbine, N.A. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
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