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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells involves degradation of IkappaBalpha but not IkappaBbeta.

We studied the signal transduction pathways involved in NF-kappaB activation and the induction of the cytoprotective A20 gene by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). LPS induced human A20 mRNA expression with a maximum level 2 h after stimulation. The proteasome inhibitor N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal-H (ALLN) and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A (HMA) blocked A20 mRNA expression and partially inhibited NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity induced by LPS treatment. LPS induced IkappaBalpha degradation at 30-60 min after treatment, but did not induce IkappaBbeta degradation up to 120 min. In contrast, TNF-alpha rapidly induced IkappaBalpha degradation within 5 min and IkappaBbeta degradation within 15 min. Cycloheximide did not prevent LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation, indicating that newly synthesized proteins induced by LPS were not involved in LPS-stimulated IkappaBalpha degradation. LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation was inhibited by ALLN, confirming that ALLN inhibits NF-kappaB activation by preventing IkappaBalpha degradation. Of note, HMA also inhibited LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation. However, tyrosine phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha itself was not elicited by LPS stimulation, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein(s) upstream of IkappaBalpha is required for subsequent degradation. We conclude that in HUVEC, LPS induces NF-kappaB-dependent genes through degradation of IkappaBalpha, not IkappaBbeta, and propose that this degradation is induced in part by HMA-sensitive kinase(s) upstream of IkappaBalpha.[1]


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