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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A novel, non-redox-regulated NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase from chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana L.

We report a novel plastidic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (EC 1. 1.1.37), which is not redox-regulated in contrast to its NADP-specific counterpart (EC Analysis of isoenzyme patterns revealed a single NAD-MDH associated with highly purified chloroplasts isolated from Arabidopsis and spinach. A cDNA clone encoding the novel enzyme was found in the Arabidopsis EST data base by sorting all putative clones for NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase. A derived amino acid sequence is very similar to mitochondrial and peroxisomal NAD-MDHs within the region coding for the mature protein but possesses a 80-amino acid long N-terminal domain with typical characteristics of a chloroplast transit peptide. In vitro synthesized labeled precursor protein was imported into the stroma of spinach chloroplasts and processed to a mature enzyme subunit of 34 kDa. Expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant enzyme exhibited the same distinctive isoelectric point of 5.35 as the original enzyme from Arabidopsis chloroplasts. Northern analysis revealed that the protein is expressed in both autotrophic and heterotrophic tissues. The findings reported here indicate that the "malate valve" operates not only in the illuminated chloroplasts but also in dark chloroplasts and in heterotrophic plastids and is therefore a general mechanism to maintain the optimal ratio between ATP and reducing equivalents in plastids.[1]


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