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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Plastids

  • The gene was stably introduced into tobacco plants under transcriptional control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and the enzyme was targeted into plastids by the transit peptide of the pea RuBisCO small subunit [1].
  • Since the ancestors of plastids were related to cyanobacteria, we have studied GAPDH genes in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis [2].
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens increases cytokinin production in plastids by modifying the biosynthetic pathway in the host plant [3].
  • The endosymbiotic origin of plastids and the recent finding of an Arabidopsis nuclear gene, encoding a chloroplast-localized protein homologous to Escherichia coli RecA, suggest that the plastid recombination system is related to its eubacterial counterpart [4].
  • With the aadA gene (resistance against spectinomycin and streptomycin) as anchor sequence, the transfer of segments of the tobacco plastid DNA to Acinetobacter by homology-facilitated illegitimate recombination occurred at a frequency of 1.2 x 10(-7) per cell, which was about 0.1% of the frequency of fully homologous transfers [5].

Psychiatry related information on Plastids

  • Carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation during tomato fruit development and ripening is a complex process that occurs alongside the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts and changes to the organoleptic properties of the fruit [6].

High impact information on Plastids

  • The major protein import receptor of plastids is essential for chloroplast biogenesis [7].
  • Here we report the results of parsimony analyses of DNA sequences of the plastid genes rbcL and atpB and the nuclear 18S rDNA for 560 species of angiosperms and seven non-flowering seed plants and show a well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic tree for the angiosperms for use in comparative biology [8].
  • Here we show that replication of the apicomplexan plastid (apicoplast) genome in Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites can be specifically inhibited using ciprofloxacin, and that this inhibition blocks parasite replication [9].
  • Conversely, clindamycin (and functionally related compounds) immediately inhibits plastid replication upon drug application-the earliest effect so far described for these antibiotics [9].
  • The light-regulated conversion of glutamate to delta-aminolevulinate in the stroma of greening plastids involves the reduction of glutamate to glutamate-1-semialdehyde and its subsequent transamination [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Plastids


Biological context of Plastids

  • Insertion of precursor OEP86 required the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate and the existence of surface exposed chloroplast membrane components, and it was not competed by another precursor protein destined for the internal plastid compartments [16].
  • Next, we show that disruption of a gene encoding plastidic SPase I (Plsp1) resulted in the accumulation of immature forms of Toc75, severe reduction of plastid internal membrane development, and a seedling lethal phenotype [17].
  • The psbD operon of higher plant plastids is regulated transcriptionally through the activity of an upstream light-responsive promoter [18].
  • To determine the cis-acting sequence elements involved in plastid RNA editing, we constructed a series of chloroplast transformation vectors harboring selected editing sites of the tobacco ndhB transcript in a chimeric context [19].
  • The protein translocation channel at the plastid outer envelope membrane, Toc75, is essential for the viability of plants from the embryonic stage [17].

Anatomical context of Plastids

  • AtSufE activates AtSufS and AtNifS1 cysteine desulfurization, and AtSufE activity restoration in either plastids or mitochondria is not sufficient to rescue embryo lethality in AtSufE loss-of-function mutants [20].
  • Contact between root plastidic THF1 and GPA1 at the plasma membrane occurs at sites where the plastid membrane abuts the plasma membrane, as demonstrated by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) [21].
  • The apg2 plastids were highly vacuolated, lacked internal membrane structures and lamellae of the thylakoid membrane, and contained many densely stained globule structures, like undifferentiated proplastids [22].
  • However, L21 is present about equally in plastid ribosomes of unilluminated and illuminated seedlings [23].
  • However, the plastid genes encoding the chlorophyll apoproteins are transcribed; chlorophyll apoprotein mRNA accumulates and associates with polysomes in plastids of dark-grown plants [24].

Associations of Plastids with chemical compounds

  • With respect to the differentiation of subepidermal cell types, molecular links have been made between auxin physiology and vascular development, and between plastid function and photosynthetic cell type development [25].
  • The light-inducible nuclear gene coding for the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), produces a precursor protein with an amino-terminal transit peptide which is transported into the plastids and cleaved by a specific proteinase [26].
  • The psbF mRNA is edited in spinach plastids by a C to U conversion, changing a serine to a conserved phenylalanine codon [27].
  • Transcripts of the maize plastid gene for the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase reach a maximum by 20 h of illumination; transcripts of the nuclear gene for the small subunit of this enzyme continue to accumulate and fall considerably later [28].
  • A methyl jasmonate-induced shift in the length of the 5' untranslated region impairs translation of the plastid rbcL transcript in barley [29].

Gene context of Plastids

  • Processes that are mediated by Toc33 operate during the early stages of plastid and leaf development [30].
  • We conclude that HCF136 encodes a stability and/or assembly factor of PSII which dates back to the cyanobacterial-like endosymbiont that led to the plastids of the present photosynthetic eukaryotes [31].
  • Whereas in wild-type plants, the FtsZ proteins assemble into a ring at the plastid division site, chloroplasts in the arc6 mutant contain numerous short, disorganized FtsZ filament fragments [32].
  • The accumulation of the HY1 protein in plastids was detected by using immunoblot analysis with an anti-HY1 antiserum [33].
  • The import of one of them, PORA, into plastids of cotyledons is substrate dependent [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plastids


  1. Low-temperature resistance of higher plants is significantly enhanced by a nonspecific cyanobacterial desaturase. Ishizaki-Nishizawa, O., Fujii, T., Azuma, M., Sekiguchi, K., Murata, N., Ohtani, T., Toguri, T. Nat. Biotechnol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence for a chimeric nature of nuclear genomes: eubacterial origin of eukaryotic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. Martin, W., Brinkmann, H., Savonna, C., Cerff, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens increases cytokinin production in plastids by modifying the biosynthetic pathway in the host plant. Sakakibara, H., Kasahara, H., Ueda, N., Kojima, M., Takei, K., Hishiyama, S., Asami, T., Okada, K., Kamiya, Y., Yamaya, T., Yamaguchi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of chloroplast DNA recombination and repair by dominant negative mutants of Escherichia coli RecA. Cerutti, H., Johnson, A.M., Boynton, J.E., Gillham, N.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Transfer of plastid DNA from tobacco to the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp. by natural transformation. de Vries, J., Herzfeld, T., Wackernagel, W. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of carotenoid formation during tomato fruit ripening and development. Bramley, P.M. J. Exp. Bot. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The major protein import receptor of plastids is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. Bauer, J., Chen, K., Hiltbunner, A., Wehrli, E., Eugster, M., Schnell, D., Kessler, F. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from multiple genes as a tool for comparative biology. Soltis, P.S., Soltis, D.E., Chase, M.W. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. A plastid organelle as a drug target in apicomplexan parasites. Fichera, M.E., Roos, D.S. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The RNA required in the first step of chlorophyll biosynthesis is a chloroplast glutamate tRNA. Schön, A., Krupp, G., Gough, S., Berry-Lowe, S., Kannangara, C.G., Söll, D. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Higher plant plastids and cyanobacteria have folate carriers related to those of trypanosomatids. Klaus, S.M., Kunji, E.R., Bozzo, G.G., Noiriel, A., de la Garza, R.D., Basset, G.J., Ravanel, S., Rébeillé, F., Gregory, J.F., Hanson, A.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Control of de novo purine biosynthesis genes in ureide-producing legumes: induction of glutamine phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase gene and characterization of its cDNA from soybean and Vigna. Kim, J.H., Delauney, A.J., Verma, D.P. Plant J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Metabolic engineering of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis for the production of taxadiene, the first committed precursor of Taxol. Besumbes, O., Sauret-Güeto, S., Phillips, M.A., Imperial, S., Rodríguez-Concepción, M., Boronat, A. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes. Hansen, L.U., Chiu, M.C. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of the first three genes in the mevalonate-independent isoprenoid pathway in Streptomyces coelicolor. Cane, D.E., Chow, C., Lillo, A., Kang, I. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. A receptor component of the chloroplast protein translocation machinery. Hirsch, S., Muckel, E., Heemeyer, F., von Heijne, G., Soll, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Complete maturation of the plastid protein translocation channel requires a type I signal peptidase. Inoue, K., Baldwin, A.J., Shipman, R.L., Matsui, K., Theg, S.M., Ohme-Takagi, M. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Light-responsive and transcription-enhancing elements regulate the plastid psbD core promoter. Allison, L.A., Maliga, P. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. In vivo dissection of cis-acting determinants for plastid RNA editing. Bock, R., Hermann, M., Kössel, H. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. AtSufE is an essential activator of plastidic and mitochondrial desulfurases in Arabidopsis. Xu, X.M., Møller, S.G. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The Plastid Protein THYLAKOID FORMATION1 and the Plasma Membrane G-Protein GPA1 Interact in a Novel Sugar-Signaling Mechanism in Arabidopsis. Huang, J., Taylor, J.P., Chen, J.G., Uhrig, J.F., Schnell, D.J., Nakagawa, T., Korth, K.L., Jones, A.M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. An essential role of a TatC homologue of a Delta pH- dependent protein transporter in thylakoid membrane formation during chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Motohashi, R., Nagata, N., Ito, T., Takahashi, S., Hobo, T., Yoshida, S., Shinozaki, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Subpopulations of chloroplast ribosomes change during photoregulated development of Zea mays leaves: ribosomal proteins L2, L21, and L29. Zhao, Y.Y., Xu, T., Zucchi, P., Bogorad, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Chlorophyll regulates accumulation of the plastid-encoded chlorophyll apoproteins CP43 and D1 by increasing apoprotein stability. Mullet, J.E., Klein, P.G., Klein, R.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Cellular differentiation in the leaf. Langdale, J.A. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. The use of nuclear-encoded sequences to direct the light-regulated synthesis and transport of a foreign protein into plant chloroplasts. Schreier, P.H., Seftor, E.A., Schell, J., Bohnert, H.J. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Introduction of a heterologous editing site into the tobacco plastid genome: the lack of RNA editing leads to a mutant phenotype. Bock, R., Kössel, H., Maliga, P. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Maize plastid photogenes: mapping and photoregulation of transcript levels during light-induced development. Rodermel, S.R., Bogorad, L. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. A methyl jasmonate-induced shift in the length of the 5' untranslated region impairs translation of the plastid rbcL transcript in barley. Reinbothe, S., Reinbothe, C., Heintzen, C., Seidenbecher, C., Parthier, B. EMBO J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. An Arabidopsis mutant defective in the plastid general protein import apparatus. Jarvis, P., Chen, L.J., Li, H., Peto, C.A., Fankhauser, C., Chory, J. Science (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. A nuclear-encoded protein of prokaryotic origin is essential for the stability of photosystem II in Arabidopsis thaliana. Meurer, J., Plücken, H., Kowallik, K.V., Westhoff, P. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. ARC6 is a J-domain plastid division protein and an evolutionary descendant of the cyanobacterial cell division protein Ftn2. Vitha, S., Froehlich, J.E., Koksharova, O., Pyke, K.A., van Erp, H., Osteryoung, K.W. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. The Arabidopsis photomorphogenic mutant hy1 is deficient in phytochrome chromophore biosynthesis as a result of a mutation in a plastid heme oxygenase. Muramoto, T., Kohchi, T., Yokota, A., Hwang, I., Goodman, H.M. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Substrate-dependent and organ-specific chloroplast protein import in planta. Kim, C., Apel, K. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted inactivation of a tobacco intron-containing open reading frame reveals a novel chloroplast-encoded photosystem I-related gene. Ruf, S., Kössel, H., Bock, R. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. A synthetic peptide-directed antibody as a probe of the phosphorylation site of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Miernyk, J.A., Randall, D.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Xanthophyll biosynthesis in chromoplasts: isolation and molecular cloning of an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 5,6-epoxycarotenoid into ketocarotenoid. Bouvier, F., Hugueney, P., d'Harlingue, A., Kuntz, M., Camara, B. Plant J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  38. Chloroplast transformation in plants: polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment of protoplasts is an alternative to biolistic delivery systems. O'Neill, C., Horváth, G.V., Horváth, E., Dix, P.J., Medgyesy, P. Plant J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Structural analysis, plastid localization, and expression of the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from tobacco. Shorrosh, B.S., Roesler, K.R., Shintani, D., van de Loo, F.J., Ohlrogge, J.B. Plant Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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