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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A1 adenosine receptors modulate respiratory activity of the neonatal mouse via the cAMP-mediated signaling pathway.

The effects of adenosine and its analogs on the function of the respiratory center were studied in the spontaneously active rhythmic slice of neonatal and juvenile mice (4-14 days old). Whole cell, spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs) and single channel KATP currents were recorded in inspiratory neurons of the pre-Bötzinger complex. Adenosine (50-600 microM) inhibited the respiratory rhythm. This was accompanied by increase in the activity of KATP channels in cell-attached patches. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA, 0.3-2 microM), inhibited the respiratory rhythm, sPSCs, and enhanced activity of KATP channels. The A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 1-3 microM), showed opposite effects and occluded the CCPA actions. Agents specific for A2 adenosine receptors (CGS 21860 and NECA, both applied at 1-10 microM) were without effect. Elevation of intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i) by 8-Br-cAMP (200-500 microM), forskolin (0.5-2 microM), or isobutylmethylxantine (IBMX, 30-90 microM) reinforced the rhythm, whereas NaF (100-800 microM) depressed it. The open probability of single KATP channels in cell-attached patches decreased after application of forskolin and increased in the presence of NaF. [cAMP]i elevation reversed the effects of A1 receptors both on the respiratory rhythm and KATP channels. A1 receptors and [cAMP]i modified the hypoxic respiratory response. In the presence of A1 agonists the duration of hypoxic augmentation shortened, and depression of the respiratory rhythm occurred earlier. Elevation of [cAMP]i prolonged augmentation and delayed the development of the depression. We conclude that A1 adenosine receptors modulate the respiratory rhythm via inhibition of intracellular cAMP production and concomitant activation of KATP channels.[1]


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