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Gene Review

Gulo  -  gulonolactone (L-) oxidase

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 5730581M22, AU018375, BC028822, GLO, L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, ...
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Disease relevance of Gulo


High impact information on Gulo

  • It was shown that nitrophenyl acetyl-poly-(L-glu56-L-lys35-L-phe9) (NP-GLO) could prime for NP responses only in strains of mice which are Ir gene responders to GLO [4].
  • Hepatic URO accumulation was produced in AA-requiring Gulo(-/-) mice by treatment with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorbiphenyl, an inducer of CYP1A2, and 5-aminolevulinic acid [5].
  • Fowl gamma-globulin, when chemically conjugated to GLO or GL, functions as a T-dependent immunogenic carrier and stimulates anti-GLO and anti-GL antibody production in nonresponder mice [6].
  • CONCLUSION: The sfx is a mutation of the GULO gene, which leads to ascorbic acid deficiency, impaired osteoblast cell function, and fractures in affected mice [1].
  • Spontaneous fractures in the mouse mutant sfx are caused by deletion of the gulonolactone oxidase gene, causing vitamin C deficiency [1].

Biological context of Gulo

  • The Gulo gene is 22 kb long and contains 12 exons [7].
  • Low rescue efficiency of Gulo-expressing adenoviral constructs and reduced viral growth in HEK293 cells were observed, suggesting that overexpression of Gulo may be inhibitory to cell growth [7].
  • In the present study, we used Gulo-/- mutant mice, which are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, to study the importance of dietary vitamin C (VC) on spermatogenesis [8].
  • The sfx gene was fine mapped to a 2 MB region containing approximately 30 genes in chromosome 14 [1].
  • Histomorphometric analyses of bones from sfx mice revealed that bone formation rate is reduced by >90% and is caused by impairment of differentiated functions of osteoblasts [1].

Anatomical context of Gulo


Associations of Gulo with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Gulo


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gulo

  • Northern blot analysis revealed high expression of Gulo transcript in the liver [7].
  • The sfx gene was identified using various molecular genetic approaches, including fine mapping and sequencing of candidate genes, whole genome microarray, and PCR amplification of candidate genes using cDNA and genomic DNA as templates [1].
  • With the hemolytic plaque assay, we have verified that GLO responder animals make both IgM and IgG responses, whereas nonresponder mice fail to make either IgM or IgG plaque-forming cells [6].


  1. Spontaneous fractures in the mouse mutant sfx are caused by deletion of the gulonolactone oxidase gene, causing vitamin C deficiency. Mohan, S., Kapoor, A., Singgih, A., Zhang, Z., Taylor, T., Yu, H., Chadwick, R.B., Chung, Y.S., Chung, Y.S., Donahue, L.R., Rosen, C., Crawford, G.C., Wergedal, J., Baylink, D.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A deletion causing spontaneous fracture identified from a candidate region of mouse Chromosome 14. Jiao, Y., Li, X., Beamer, W.G., Yan, J., Tong, Y., Goldowitz, D., Roe, B., Gu, W. Mamm. Genome (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Vitamin C deficiency increases the lung pathology of influenza virus-infected gulo-/- mice. Li, W., Maeda, N., Beck, M.A. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Ir gene controlled carrier effects in the induction and elicitation of hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. Weinberger, J.Z., Benacerraf, B., Dorf, M.E. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of iron and ascorbate on uroporphyria in ascorbate-requiring mice as a model for porphyria cutanea tarda. Gorman, N., Zaharia, A., Trask, H.S., Szakacs, J.G., Jacobs, N.J., Jacobs, J.M., Balestra, D., Sinclair, J.F., Sinclair, P.R. Hepatology (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Development of a hemolytic plaque assay for glutamic acid, lysine-containing polypeptides: demonstration that nonresponder mice produce antibodies to these peptides when conjugated to an immunogenic carrier. Cheung, N.K., Dorf, M.E., Benacerraf, B. J. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional rescue of vitamin C synthesis deficiency in human cells using adenoviral-based expression of murine l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase. Ha, M.N., Graham, F.L., D'Souza, C.K., Muller, W.J., Igdoura, S.A., Schellhorn, H.E. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Abnormal spermatogenesis in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid. Yazama, F., Furuta, K., Fujimoto, M., Sonoda, T., Shigetomi, H., Horiuchi, T., Yamada, M., Nagao, N., Maeda, N. Anatomical science international / Japanese Association of Anatomists. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Sarcocystis and other coccidia in foxes and other wild carnivores from Montana. Dubey, J.P. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Vitamin C. Linster, C.L., Van Schaftingen, E. FEBS J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficient in vitro lowering of carbonyl stress by the glyoxalase system in conventional glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid. Inagi, R., Miyata, T., Ueda, Y., Yoshino, A., Nangaku, M., van Ypersele de Strihou, C., Kurokawa, K. Kidney Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression and regional assignment of Chinese hamster ESD and rRNA genes associated with translocations giving rise to chromosomes Z1 and Z6 in CHO cells. Stallings, R.L., Adair, G.M., Lin, J.C., Siciliano, M.J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Ascorbic acid-independent synthesis of collagen in mice. Parsons, K.K., Maeda, N., Yamauchi, M., Banes, A.J., Koller, B.H. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
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