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Gene Review

virD2  -  type IV secretion system T-DNA border...

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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Disease relevance of virD2

  • Reductions to 2, 5, and 42% of the wild-type transformation efficiency were found when Agrobacterium mutants carrying transposon insertions in virD2, virC2, and virE2, respectively, were used to transform Aspergillus awamori [1].

High impact information on virD2

  • Further refinements are accomplished by employing Omega-mutated virD2 and isopentenyl transferase cytokinin genes to impair T-DNA integration and select against backbone integration, respectively [2].
  • PCR-RFLP analysis of the T-DNA and virD2 regions showed sequence homology between all cucumopine pRi, indicating that these pRi are monomorphic, and thus this pRi remained in the UK without inducing symptoms for some 15 years between outbreaks in the 1970s and 1990s [3].

Other interactions of virD2

  • The T-DNAs of transformants obtained with the virE2 mutant had left-border truncations, whereas those obtained with the virD2 mutant had truncated right ends [1].


  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori in the absence of full-length VirD2, VirC2, or VirE2 leads to insertion of aberrant T-DNA structures. Michielse, C.B., Ram, A.F., Hooykaas, P.J., van den Hondel, C.A. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Crop improvement through modification of the plant's own genome. Rommens, C.M., Humara, J.M., Ye, J., Yan, H., Richael, C., Zhang, L., Perry, R., Swords, K. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Recurrent outbreaks of root mat in cucumber and tomato are associated with a monomorphic, cucumopine, Ri-plasmid harboured by various Alphaproteobacteria. Weller, S.A., Stead, D.E., Young, J.P. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
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