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Gene Review

virE2  -  type IV secretion system single-stranded...

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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Disease relevance of virE2


High impact information on virE2

  • The approach is to deliver into plant protoplasts by direct gene transfer the Agrobacterium virulence genes virD1 and virD2 with or without virE2, together with a target plasmid containing a gene of interest flanked by Agrobacterium T-DNA border repeat sequences of 25 bp [3].
  • Reductions to 2, 5, and 42% of the wild-type transformation efficiency were found when Agrobacterium mutants carrying transposon insertions in virD2, virC2, and virE2, respectively, were used to transform Aspergillus awamori [4].
  • Deletion of virE1 did not affect transcription but decreased translation of virE2, as shown by analysis of lacZ transcriptional and translational fusions [5].
  • Several variables affecting transformation efficiency were examined including insert size, Agrobacterium genetic background, and the presence of additional copies of the virG, virE1 and virE2 genes [6].
  • Cucumopine pRi were also shown to possess the virE2 substitute GALLS gene by Southern blotting [7].

Biological context of virE2


Regulatory relationships of virE2

  • By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2 [9].

Other interactions of virE2

  • The T-DNAs of transformants obtained with the virE2 mutant had left-border truncations, whereas those obtained with the virD2 mutant had truncated right ends [4].


  1. The Agrobacterium VirE3 effector protein: a potential plant transcriptional activator. Garc??a-Rodr??guez, F.M., Schrammeijer, B., Hooykaas, P.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic analysis of the virE operon of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid pTiA6. McBride, K.E., Knauf, V.C. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. T-strand integration in maize protoplasts after codelivery of a T-DNA substrate and virulence genes. Hansen, G., Shillito, R.D., Chilton, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori in the absence of full-length VirD2, VirC2, or VirE2 leads to insertion of aberrant T-DNA structures. Michielse, C.B., Ram, A.F., Hooykaas, P.J., van den Hondel, C.A. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Activities of virE1 and the VirE1 secretion chaperone in export of the multifunctional VirE2 effector via an Agrobacterium type IV secretion pathway. Zhao, Z., Sagulenko, E., Ding, Z., Christie, P.J. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficiency and stability of high molecular weight DNA transformation: an analysis in tomato. Frary, A., Hamilton, C.M. Transgenic Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Recurrent outbreaks of root mat in cucumber and tomato are associated with a monomorphic, cucumopine, Ri-plasmid harboured by various Alphaproteobacteria. Weller, S.A., Stead, D.E., Young, J.P. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Genome structure of Ri plasmid (3). Sequencing analysis of the vir region of pRi1724 in Japanese Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Satuti, N., Moriguchi, K., Sato, M., Kataoka, M., Maeda, Y., Tanaka, N., Yoshida, K. Nucleic Acids Symp. Ser. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction. Zhou, X.R., Christie, P.J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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