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Chemical Compound Review

kinetin     N-(2-furylmethyl)-7H-purin-6- amine

Synonyms: KINETINE, Kinerase, Cytokinin, QUINETINE, Cytex, ...
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Disease relevance of kinetin


High impact information on kinetin


Chemical compound and disease context of kinetin


Biological context of kinetin

  • Constitutive expression of CycD3 in transgenic plants allowed induction and maintenance of cell division in the absence of exogenous cytokinin [13].
  • The understanding of the function of these response regulator genes is only rudimentary but the transcriptional induction of a subset by cytokinin suggests a role for some of these regulators in the response to this important plant hormone [14].
  • Gene 4 from the T-region of Ti plasmids is responsible for cytokinin effects in crown gall cells; we investigated whether it codes for an enzyme of hormone biosynthesis [15].
  • Spatial patterns of ARR gene expression were consistent with partially redundant function of these genes in cytokinin signaling [16].
  • In addition, we have crystallized this cytokinin-specific binding protein (Vr CSBP) in complex with zeatin and refined the structure to 1.2 A resolution [17].

Anatomical context of kinetin


Associations of kinetin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of kinetin

  • Application of exogenous cytokinins to the resultant strains revealed that both AHK2 and AHK3 function as positive regulators for cytokinin signaling similar to AHK4 [28].
  • Together, the analyses reveal partially redundant functions of the cytokinin receptors and prominent roles for the AHK2/AHK3 receptor combination in quantitative control of organ growth in plants, with opposite regulatory functions in roots and shoots [3].
  • In a similar manner, cytokinin treatment increased the stability of ACS5 by a mechanism that is at least partially independent of the eto2 mutation [29].
  • Constitutive overexpression of UGT76C1 in transgenic Arabidopsis confirmed that the recombinant enzyme functioned in vivo to glucosylate cytokinin applied to the plant [30].
  • Among the plant hormones tested, cytokinin significantly downregulated the expression of SULTR1;2 [31].
  • Microarray analysis revealed that expression of the majority of cytokinin-regulated genes requires the function of ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of kinetin


  1. The plant oncogene rolC is responsible for the release of cytokinins from glucoside conjugates. Estruch, J.J., Chriqui, D., Grossmann, K., Schell, J., Spena, A. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Fasciation induction by the phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians depends upon a linear plasmid encoding a cytokinin synthase gene. Crespi, M., Messens, E., Caplan, A.B., van Montagu, M., Desomer, J. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor mutants reveal functions in shoot growth, leaf senescence, seed size, germination, root development, and cytokinin metabolism. Riefler, M., Novak, O., Strnad, M., Schmülling, T. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A mutation in the Arabidopsis HYL1 gene encoding a dsRNA binding protein affects responses to abscisic acid, auxin, and cytokinin. Lu, C., Fedoroff, N. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. A modified nucleotide in tRNA as a possible regulator of aerobiosis: synthesis of cis-2-methyl-thioribosylzeatin in the tRNA of Salmonella. Buck, M., Ames, B.N. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction. Hwang, I., Sheen, J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of CRE1 as a cytokinin receptor from Arabidopsis. Inoue, T., Higuchi, M., Hashimoto, Y., Seki, M., Kobayashi, M., Kato, T., Tabata, S., Shinozaki, K., Kakimoto, T. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. T-DNA gene 5 of Agrobacterium modulates auxin response by autoregulated synthesis of a growth hormone antagonist in plants. Körber, H., Strizhov, N., Staiger, D., Feldwisch, J., Olsson, O., Sandberg, G., Palme, K., Schell, J., Koncz, C. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Zea3: a pleiotropic mutation affecting cotyledon development, cytokinin resistance and carbon-nitrogen metabolism. Faure, J.D., Jullien, M., Caboche, M. Plant J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression and evolution of functionally distinct haemoglobin genes in plants. Hunt, P.W., Watts, R.A., Trevaskis, B., Llewelyn, D.J., Burnell, J., Dennis, E.S., Peacock, W.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Presence of 2-methylthioribosyl-trans-zeatin in Azotobacter vinelandii tRNA. Ajitkumar, P., Cherayil, J.D. J. Bacteriol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. 4-Hydroxyphenethyl alcohol--a new cytokinin-like substance from the phototrophic purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum 1R. Serdyuk, O.P., Smolygina, L.D., Muzafarov, E.N., Adanin, V.M., Arinbasarov, M.U. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytokinin activation of Arabidopsis cell division through a D-type cyclin. Riou-Khamlichi, C., Huntley, R., Jacqmard, A., Murray, J.A. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Phosphorelay signal transduction: the emerging family of plant response regulators. D'Agostino, I.B., Kieber, J.J. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Tumour genes in plants: T-DNA encoded cytokinin biosynthesis. Buchmann, I., Marner, F.J., Schröder, G., Waffenschmidt, S., Schröder, J. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Type-A Arabidopsis response regulators are partially redundant negative regulators of cytokinin signaling. To, J.P., Haberer, G., Ferreira, F.J., Deruère, J., Mason, M.G., Schaller, G.E., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Kieber, J.J. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Crystal Structure of Vigna radiata Cytokinin-Specific Binding Protein in Complex with Zeatin. Pasternak, O., Bujacz, G.D., Fujimoto, Y., Hashimoto, Y., Jelen, F., Otlewski, J., Sikorski, M.M., Jaskolski, M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Release of active cytokinin by a beta-glucosidase localized to the maize root meristem. Brzobohatý, B., Moore, I., Kristoffersen, P., Bako, L., Campos, N., Schell, J., Palme, K. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity. Werner, T., Motyka, V., Laucou, V., Smets, R., Van Onckelen, H., Schmülling, T. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Agrobacterium tumefaciens increases cytokinin production in plastids by modifying the biosynthetic pathway in the host plant. Sakakibara, H., Kasahara, H., Ueda, N., Kojima, M., Takei, K., Hishiyama, S., Asami, T., Okada, K., Kamiya, Y., Yamaya, T., Yamaguchi, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cytokinin stimulates dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium uptake in moss protoplasts. Schumaker, K.S., Gizinski, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Cell division promoting activity of naturally occurring dehydrodiconiferyl glucosides: do cell wall components control cell division? Binns, A.N., Chen, R.H., Wood, H.N., Lynn, D.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. 5'-AMP is a direct precursor of cytokinin in Dictyostelium discoideum. Taya, Y., Tanaka, Y., Nishimura, S. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Pleiotropic control of glucose and hormone responses by PRL1, a nuclear WD protein, in Arabidopsis. Németh, K., Salchert, K., Putnoky, P., Bhalerao, R., Koncz-Kálmán, Z., Stankovic-Stangeland, B., Bakó, L., Mathur, J., Okrész, L., Stabel, S., Geigenberger, P., Stitt, M., Rédei, G.P., Schell, J., Koncz, C. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. The CHASE domain: a predicted ligand-binding module in plant cytokinin receptors and other eukaryotic and bacterial receptors. Anantharaman, V., Aravind, L. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. The Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins are redundant positive regulators of cytokinin signaling. Hutchison, C.E., Li, J., Argueso, C., Gonzalez, M., Lee, E., Lewis, M.W., Maxwell, B.B., Perdue, T.D., Schaller, G.E., Alonso, J.M., Ecker, J.R., Kieber, J.J. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Promoter trap markers differentiate structural and positional components of polar development in Arabidopsis. Topping, J.F., Lindsey, K. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis. Nishimura, C., Ohashi, Y., Sato, S., Kato, T., Tabata, S., Ueguchi, C. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. The eto1, eto2, and eto3 mutations and cytokinin treatment increase ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis by increasing the stability of ACS protein. Chae, H.S., Faure, F., Kieber, J.J. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. N-glucosylation of cytokinins by glycosyltransferases of Arabidopsis thaliana. Hou, B., Lim, E.K., Higgins, G.S., Bowles, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. A novel regulatory pathway of sulfate uptake in Arabidopsis roots: implication of CRE1/WOL/AHK4-mediated cytokinin-dependent regulation. Maruyama-Nakashita, A., Nakamura, Y., Yamaya, T., Takahashi, H. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Type B response regulators of Arabidopsis play key roles in cytokinin signaling and plant development. Argyros, R.D., Mathews, D.E., Chiang, Y.H., Palmer, C.M., Thibault, D.M., Etheridge, N., Argyros, D.A., Mason, M.G., Kieber, J.J., Schaller, G.E. Plant. Cell (2008) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytokinin-induced mRNAs in cultured soybean cells. Crowell, D.N., Kadlecek, A.T., John, M.C., Amasino, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of a benzyladenine binding-site peptide isolated from a wheat cytokinin-binding protein: sequence analysis and identification of a single affinity-labeled histidine residue by mass spectrometry. Brinegar, A.C., Cooper, G., Stevens, A., Hauer, C.R., Shabanowitz, J., Hunt, D.F., Fox, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Changes in cytosolic pH and calcium of guard cells precede stomatal movements. Irving, H.R., Gehring, C.A., Parish, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Recessive and dominant mutations in the ethylene biosynthetic gene ACS5 of Arabidopsis confer cytokinin insensitivity and ethylene overproduction, respectively. Vogel, J.P., Woeste, K.E., Theologis, A., Kieber, J.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
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