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Gene Review

ara  -  araucan

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Ara, CG10571, Dmel\CG10571, Homeobox protein araucan, IRO-C, ...
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High impact information on ara

  • We provide evidence for the existence of this prepattern by identifying two of its factors, Araucan and Caupolican [1].
  • It is known that the homeobox genes of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) define the notum territory and that the distal limit of the Iro-C expression domain demarks the boundary between the notum and the wing hinge [2].
  • The homeobox gene iroquois (iro) is expressed in the LAT region [3].
  • During wing development, Hh also has morphogen-like Dpp-independent functions, controlling the morphogenesis of the central part of the wing through the activation of the evolutionarily conserved transcription factors encoded by the iroquois and collier genes [4].
  • In support of this, we present sequence analyses that implicate genes of the iroquois Complex (Iro-C) and engrailed as additional targets of K box-mediated regulation [5].

Biological context of ara

  • In the present paper, we report the identification of a novel member of the Iroquois gene family, Irx5, that shows a restricted spatio/temporal expression during early mouse embryogenesis, distinct from the expression of Irx1-3 [6].

Anatomical context of ara

  • iroquois: a prepattern gene that controls the formation of bristles on the thorax of Drosophila [7].

Regulatory relationships of ara


Other interactions of ara

  • Thus, ara and caup integrate the inputs of genes effecting the primary subdivisions of the wing disc into compartments to define two smaller territories [9].
  • In addition, we show that the iroquois-complex genes are required for dorsal head development antagonizing the function of homothorax in this region of the disc [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ara

  • An extensive sequence analysis of 20 Iroquois-like genes from seven organisms reveals a high conservation of the homeodomain [6].


  1. Araucan and caupolican, two members of the novel iroquois complex, encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Gomez-Skarmeta, J.L., Diez del Corral, R., de la Calle-Mustienes, E., Ferré-Marcó, D., Modolell, J. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutual repression between msh and Iro-C is an essential component of the boundary between body wall and wing in Drosophila. Villa-Cuesta, E., Modolell, J. Development (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Generation of medial and lateral dorsal body domains by the pannier gene of Drosophila. Calleja, M., Herranz, H., Estella, C., Casal, J., Lawrence, P., Simpson, P., Morata, G. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. hedgehog and wing development in Drosophila: a morphogen at work? Vervoort, M. Bioessays (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The K box, a conserved 3' UTR sequence motif, negatively regulates accumulation of enhancer of split complex transcripts. Lai, E.C., Burks, C., Posakony, J.W. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of a novel mouse Iroquois homeobox gene, Irx5, and chromosomal localisation of all members of the mouse Iroquois gene family. Bosse, A., Stoykova, A., Nieselt-Struwe, K., Chowdhury, K., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Gruss, P. Dev. Dyn. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. iroquois: a prepattern gene that controls the formation of bristles on the thorax of Drosophila. Leyns, L., Gómez-Skarmeta, J.L., Dambly-Chaudière, C. Mech. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. The iroquois complex controls the somatotopy of Drosophila notum mechanosensory projections. Grillenzoni, N., van Helden, J., Dambly-Chaudière, C., Ghysen, A. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. araucan and caupolican provide a link between compartment subdivisions and patterning of sensory organs and veins in the Drosophila wing. Gómez-Skarmeta, J.L., Modolell, J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. homothorax and iroquois-C genes are required for the establishment of territories within the developing eye disc. Pichaud, F., Casares, F. Mech. Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
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