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Gene Review

caup  -  caupolican

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG10605, Caup, Dmel\CG10605, Homeobox protein caupolican, IRO-C, ...
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High impact information on caup

  • We provide evidence for the existence of this prepattern by identifying two of its factors, Araucan and Caupolican [1].
  • The Iroquois complex (Iro-C) homeodomain proteins allow cells at the proximal part of the Drosophila imaginal wing disc to form mesothoracic body wall (notum) [2].
  • In contrast, iroquois homeobox genes are the dorsal cues for the retina [3].
  • Similarly, we demonstrate that EGFR signaling directs the expression of Iroquois Complex (Iro-C) genes in prospective notum cells, rendering them distinct from, and immiscible with, neighboring wing cells [4].
  • Iroquois genes influence proximo-distal morphogenesis during rat lung development [5].

Biological context of caup

  • Expression of the Iroquois complex (Iro-C) homeobox genes in the most proximal part of the disc defines the notum, since Iro-C(-) cells within this territory acquire the identity of the adjacent distal region, the wing hinge [6].
  • Moreover, experimental evidence in flies shows that transcriptional regulatory elements are shared among genes within the Iro cluster, suggesting that the same may be true in vertebrates [7].
  • The Iro genes in Drosophila and the Irx genes of mammals show a clustered organization in the genome [7].
  • Preliminary characterization indicated that two sets of nuclear proteins from soybean bind AT-rich DNA sequences: a diverse high-molecular-weight (ca. 46-69 kDa) group, and a low-molecular-weight (23 and 32 kDa) group of proteins [8].
  • The Iroquois homeobox genes play important roles in Drosophila eye development; they are required for the up-regulation of hedgehog expression during propagation of the morphogenetic furrow [9].

Other interactions of caup

  • Thus, ara and caup integrate the inputs of genes effecting the primary subdivisions of the wing disc into compartments to define two smaller territories [10].
  • For instance, expression of at least one reporter transgene was shown to correlate with that of the endogenous gene in the case of insertions in Ultrabithorax, four-jointed, and the iroquois complex [11].


  1. Araucan and caupolican, two members of the novel iroquois complex, encode homeoproteins that control proneural and vein-forming genes. Gomez-Skarmeta, J.L., Diez del Corral, R., de la Calle-Mustienes, E., Ferré-Marcó, D., Modolell, J. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The Iroquois homeodomain proteins are required to specify body wall identity in Drosophila. Diez del Corral, R., Aroca, P., G mez-Skarmeta, J.L., Cavodeassi, F., Modolell, J. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. DWnt4 regulates the dorsoventral specificity of retinal projections in the Drosophila melanogaster visual system. Sato, M., Umetsu, D., Murakami, S., Yasugi, T., Tabata, T. Nat. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Subdivision of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by EGFR-mediated signaling. Zecca, M., Struhl, G. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Iroquois genes influence proximo-distal morphogenesis during rat lung development. van Tuyl, M., Liu, J., Groenman, F., Ridsdale, R., Han, R.N., Venkatesh, V., Tibboel, D., Post, M. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Dpp signalling is a key effector of the wing-body wall subdivision of the Drosophila mesothorax. Cavodeassi, F., Rodríguez, I., Modolell, J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The Irx gene family in zebrafish: genomic structure, evolution and initial characterization of irx5b. Feijóo, C.G., Manzanares, M., de la Calle-Mustienes, E., Gómez-Skarmeta, J.L., Allende, M.L. Dev. Genes Evol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. AT-rich promoter elements of soybean heat shock gene Gmhsp17.5E bind two distinct sets of nuclear proteins in vitro. Czarnecka, E., Ingersoll, J.C., Gurley, W.B. Plant Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. The homeobox gene irx1a is required for the propagation of the neurogenic waves in the zebrafish retina. Cheng, C.W., Yan, C.H., Hui, C.C., Strähle, U., Cheng, S.H. Mech. Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. araucan and caupolican provide a link between compartment subdivisions and patterning of sensory organs and veins in the Drosophila wing. Gómez-Skarmeta, J.L., Modolell, J. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Advantages of a P-element construct containing MtnA sequences for the identification of patterning and cell determination genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Faucheux, M., Netter, S., Bloyer, S., Moussa, M., Boissonneau, E., Lemeunier, F., Wegnez, M., Théodore, L. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
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