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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, Homeobox

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Disease relevance of Genes, Homeobox


High impact information on Genes, Homeobox

  • Fab-7 is a PRE-containing regulatory element from the homeotic gene Abdominal-B [6].
  • These reproductive homeobox on the X chromosome (Rhox) genes are expressed in a cell type-specific manner; several are hormonally regulated, and their expression pattern during postnatal testis development corresponds to their chromosomal position [7].
  • The unsuspected additional role of WUS in regulating floral homeotic gene expression supports the hypothesis that floral patterning uses a general meristem patterning system that was present before flowers evolved [8].
  • The Polycomb group (PcG) genes are required for maintenance of homeotic gene repression during development [9].
  • Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, Homeobox

  • Protein transduction domains (PTDs), such as the third helix of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeobox gene (Antp) and the HIV TAT PTD, possess a characteristic positive charge on the basis of their enrichment for arginine and lysine residues [11].

Biological context of Genes, Homeobox


Anatomical context of Genes, Homeobox


Associations of Genes, Homeobox with chemical compounds

  • Sevenless, a cell-specific homeotic gene of Drosophila, encodes a putative transmembrane receptor with a tyrosine kinase domain [21].
  • Differential activation of Xenopus homeo box genes by mesoderm-inducing growth factors and retinoic acid [22].
  • The absence of an identifiable transcription factor motif (e.g., homeo box, zinc finger, leucine zipper, or helix-loop-helix) makes runt different from the other early-acting segmentation proteins [23].
  • Mice with 50% Pdx1, a homeobox gene critical for pancreatic development, had worsening glucose tolerance with age and reduced insulin release in response to glucose, KCl, and arginine from the perfused pancreas [24].
  • The translated fusion product is comprised of most of the 5' end of the adjacent PPi-dependent fructose 6-phosphate phosphotransferase (PFP) transcript spliced in-frame to coding position 64 of the TKn2 transcript, leaving the TKn2 homeobox intact [25].

Gene context of Genes, Homeobox

  • The Polycomb group (Pc-G) proteins are responsible for keeping developmental regulators, like homeotic genes, stably and inheritably repressed during Drosophila development [26].
  • The homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx), located in the bithorax complex of Drosophila, encodes a family of closely related proteins that direct the developmental fates of posterior thoracic and anterior abdominal metameres [27].
  • The protein binds tightly to sequences near its own promoter and near the P1 promoter of Antenna-pedia (Antp), a homeotic gene Ubx is known to repress from genetic studies [27].
  • Thus, the ability of different homeotic genes to specify distinct segmental patterns may depend on cooperative interactions with proteins such as exd that selectively modulate their otherwise similar DNA binding specificities [28].
  • Axis specification in the developing Drosophila appendage: the role of wingless, decapentaplegic, and the homeobox gene aristaless [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, Homeobox

  • Cloning and sequence analysis of agamous suggest that it encodes a protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the DNA-binding region of transcription factors from yeast and humans and to the product of a homeotic gene from Antirrhinum [30].
  • The construction of a full-length cDNA by RT-PCR confirmed the presence of a homeo box in the GL2 gene and showed that it is substantially different from other recently cloned homeo box genes in plants [31].
  • In situ hybridization analysis shows that this mutation leads to increased expression of the carpel-determining homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) in the mutant ovules [32].
  • In an attempt to identify additional beta-cell homeodomain proteins, we designed primers based on the sequences of beta-cell homeobox genes cdx3 and lmx1 and the Drosophila homeodomain protein Antennapedia and used these primers to amplify inserts by PCR from an insulinoma cDNA library [33].
  • Heterogenetic transplantation and mutant analysis show that the activity of the homeotic genes Ubx or abd-A is required for the expression of the abdominal variant of the lineage [34].


  1. Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity. Harvey, N.L., Srinivasan, R.S., Dillard, M.E., Johnson, N.C., Witte, M.H., Boyd, K., Sleeman, M.W., Oliver, G. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequential activation of HOX2 homeobox genes by retinoic acid in human embryonal carcinoma cells. Simeone, A., Acampora, D., Arcioni, L., Andrews, P.W., Boncinelli, E., Mavilio, F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Targeted replacement of the homeobox gene Hox-3.1 by the Escherichia coli lacZ in mouse chimeric embryos. Le Mouellic, H., Lallemand, Y., Brûlet, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in the human RAX homeobox gene in a patient with anophthalmia and sclerocornea. Voronina, V.A., Kozhemyakina, E.A., O'Kernick, C.M., Kahn, N.D., Wenger, S.L., Linberg, J.V., Schneider, A.S., Mathers, P.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Deletion in the promoter region and altered expression of Pitx3 homeobox gene in aphakia mice. Semina, E.V., Murray, J.C., Reiter, R., Hrstka, R.F., Graw, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Grimaud, C., Bantignies, F., Pal-Bhadra, M., Ghana, P., Bhadra, U., Cavalli, G. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Rhox: a new homeobox gene cluster. Maclean, J.A., Chen, M.A., Wayne, C.M., Bruce, S.R., Rao, M., Meistrich, M.L., Macleod, C., Wilkinson, M.F. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. A molecular link between stem cell regulation and floral patterning in Arabidopsis. Lohmann, J.U., Hong, R.L., Hobe, M., Busch, M.A., Parcy, F., Simon, R., Weigel, D. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Stabilization of chromatin structure by PRC1, a Polycomb complex. Shao, Z., Raible, F., Mollaaghababa, R., Guyon, J.R., Wu, C.T., Bender, W., Kingston, R.E. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Early specification of limb muscle precursor cells by the homeobox gene Lbx1h. Schäfer, K., Braun, T. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of a class of cationic peptides able to facilitate efficient protein transduction in vitro and in vivo. Mi, Z., Mai, J., Lu, X., Robbins, P.D. Mol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. The zinc finger gene Krox20 regulates HoxB2 (Hox2.8) during hindbrain segmentation. Sham, M.H., Vesque, C., Nonchev, S., Marshall, H., Frain, M., Gupta, R.D., Whiting, J., Wilkinson, D., Charnay, P., Krumlauf, R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Trinucleotide repeat expansion at the myotonic dystrophy locus reduces expression of DMAHP. Klesert, T.R., Otten, A.D., Bird, T.D., Tapscott, S.J. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Homeo box genes of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes of Drosophila. Regulski, M., Harding, K., Kostriken, R., Karch, F., Levine, M., McGinnis, W. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Ocular retardation mouse caused by Chx10 homeobox null allele: impaired retinal progenitor proliferation and bipolar cell differentiation. Burmeister, M., Novak, J., Liang, M.Y., Basu, S., Ploder, L., Hawes, N.L., Vidgen, D., Hoover, F., Goldman, D., Kalnins, V.I., Roderick, T.H., Taylor, B.A., Hankin, M.H., McInnes, R.R. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Mapping the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy gene is complicated by chromsome 4q35 recombination events. Weiffenbach, B., Dubois, J., Storvick, D., Tawil, R., Jacobsen, S.J., Gilbert, J., Wijmenga, C., Mendell, J.R., Winokur, S., Altherr, M.R. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. rough, a Drosophila homeobox gene required in photoreceptors R2 and R5 for inductive interactions in the developing eye. Tomlinson, A., Kimmel, B.E., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. The developmental effect of overexpressing a Ubx product in Drosophila embryos is dependent on its interactions with other homeotic products. González-Reyes, A., Morata, G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The homeotic target gene centrosomin encodes an essential centrosomal component. Li, K., Kaufman, T.C. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Homeotic genes autonomously specify one aspect of pattern in the Drosophila mesoderm. Greig, S., Akam, M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Sevenless, a cell-specific homeotic gene of Drosophila, encodes a putative transmembrane receptor with a tyrosine kinase domain. Hafen, E., Basler, K., Edstroem, J.E., Rubin, G.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential activation of Xenopus homeo box genes by mesoderm-inducing growth factors and retinoic acid. Cho, K.W., De Robertis, E.M. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. The Drosophila segmentation gene runt encodes a novel nuclear regulatory protein that is also expressed in the developing nervous system. Kania, M.A., Bonner, A.S., Duffy, J.B., Gergen, J.P. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased islet apoptosis in Pdx1+/- mice. Johnson, J.D., Ahmed, N.T., Luciani, D.S., Han, Z., Tran, H., Fujita, J., Misler, S., Edlund, H., Polonsky, K.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. The dominant developmental mutants of tomato, Mouse-ear and Curl, are associated with distinct modes of abnormal transcriptional regulation of a Knotted gene. Parnis, A., Cohen, O., Gutfinger, T., Hareven, D., Zamir, D., Lifschitz, E. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Mapping Polycomb-repressed domains in the bithorax complex using in vivo formaldehyde cross-linked chromatin. Orlando, V., Paro, R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. An Ultrabithorax protein binds sequences near its own and the Antennapedia P1 promoters. Beachy, P.A., Krasnow, M.A., Gavis, E.R., Hogness, D.S. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. The DNA binding specificity of Ultrabithorax is modulated by cooperative interactions with extradenticle, another homeoprotein. Chan, S.K., Jaffe, L., Capovilla, M., Botas, J., Mann, R.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Axis specification in the developing Drosophila appendage: the role of wingless, decapentaplegic, and the homeobox gene aristaless. Campbell, G., Weaver, T., Tomlinson, A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Yanofsky, M.F., Ma, H., Bowman, J.L., Drews, G.N., Feldmann, K.A., Meyerowitz, E.M. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. The GLABRA2 gene encodes a homeo domain protein required for normal trichome development in Arabidopsis. Rerie, W.G., Feldmann, K.A., Marks, M.D. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene BELL (BEL1) controls ovule development through negative regulation of AGAMOUS gene (AG). Ray, A., Robinson-Beers, K., Ray, S., Baker, S.C., Lang, J.D., Preuss, D., Milligan, S.B., Gasser, C.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Pancreatic beta cells express a diverse set of homeobox genes. Rudnick, A., Ling, T.Y., Odagiri, H., Rutter, W.J., German, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Early tagma-specific commitment of Drosophila CNS progenitor NB1-1. Prokop, A., Technau, G.M. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
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