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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Thorax

  • The remaining Hspg2-/- mice died just after birth with skeletal dysplasia characterized by micromelia with broad and bowed long bones, narrow thorax and craniofacial abnormalities [1].
  • PURPOSE: This analysis aims to evaluate routine carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) and computed tomography (CT) of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis as part of protocol-specified follow-up policy for colorectal cancer (CRC) [2].
  • Moderate gastrointestinal toxicity was noted in 41% and severe in 16% of the patients receiving CAV and brain irradiation without thoracic radiotherapy v 44% and 20% in those irradiated in the thorax [3].
  • Potential mechanisms, whereby asthma may predispose to the development of GER, include autonomic dysregulation, an increased pressure gradient differential between the thorax and the abdomen, a high prevalence of hiatal hernia, alterations in crural diaphragm function, and bronchodilator medication use [4].
  • METHODS: This is a review of patients with Eisenmenger syndrome seen at the Toronto Congenital Cardiac Centre for Adults, Canada. Patients underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scan of the thorax [5].

Psychiatry related information on Thorax

  • Since 1971 a propagation and behavioral research program has been carried out on a colony of these monkeys at the Zoological Park. Several related animals have died and at necropsy have shown absence of the anterior portion of the diaphragm with a variety of abdominal viscera in the thorax [6].

High impact information on Thorax

  • Another maternal component, hunchback (hb), can substitute for bcd in the thorax and abdomen [7].
  • The RNA of the anterior morphogen bicoid is localized to the anterior pole of the embryo, where bicoid protein controls head and thorax development [8].
  • Successful repair in utero of a fetal diaphragmatic hernia after removal of herniated viscera from the left thorax [9].
  • Few, if any, clones were found in the posterior-most regions of the naked cuticle, and none were found in the posterior compartments of the thorax [10].
  • The head, thorax and the anterior abdomen fail to develop in otd-1/hb double-RNAi embryos [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thorax


Biological context of Thorax

  • Antennapedia (Antp), a homeotic gene of Drosophila required for proper differentiation of the thorax of the fly, is expressed in complex spatial patterns during development [17].
  • This suggests that adenosine induced a redistribution of blood volume toward the central thorax [18].
  • We find that a lesion in Nasonia hunchback is responsible for the severe zygotic headless mutant phenotype, in which most head structures and the thorax are deleted, as are the three most posterior abdominal segments [19].
  • We find that Oncopeltus Krüppel is expressed in a gap-like domain in the thorax during the blastoderm and germband stages of embryogenesis [20].
  • In this study, we examine the temporal expression of transcripts encoding each BR-C zinc-finger isoform-including the newly discovered fourth zinc-finger domain-during the metamorphosis of imaginal discs which form the integumental structures of the adult head and thorax [21].

Anatomical context of Thorax

  • During opening and closure of the thorax, mean ceftriaxone concentration was in excess of the MIC at which 90% of the potential pathogens were inhibited (> or = 4 micrograms/g) in the thoracic fat, the sternal bone, and the pericardium [22].
  • Iodine-131 is uniquely able to demonstrate iodine uptake of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), but precise localization may be difficult, especially in the thorax, due to the quality of image resolution with 131I and the lack of anatomical landmarks [23].
  • We have used a GAL4 enhancer-trap line coupled with an upstream activation sequence (UAS)-linked lacZ reporter construct to visualise and describe the central projections of proprioceptive sensory neurons of the thorax and abdomen in Drosophila [24].
  • Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is mainly membrane bound in the central nervous system (CNS) of larvae and in the head and thorax of adults of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly soluble in the larval carcass, the adult abdomen, similar to that of the embryos (Zador et al. 1986) [25].
  • We anesthetized six cockerels with sodium pentobarbital (ca. 30 mg/kg), cannulated the cutaneous ulnar vein and carotid artery, opened the thorax, and unidirectionally ventilated each lung separately [26].

Associations of Thorax with chemical compounds


Gene context of Thorax

  • In a branchiopod crustacean, Ubx/AbdA proteins are expressed in both thorax and abdomen, including the limb primordia, but do not repress limbs [32].
  • We found that bicoid mutants specifically defective in cooperative DNA binding fail to direct proper development of the head and thorax, leading to embryonic lethality [33].
  • Transabdominal (Tab) is a dominant gain-of-function mutation that results in islands of sexually dimorphic abdominal cuticle in the dorsal thorax of the adult fly [34].
  • We postulate that spalt and spalt-related belong to a category of transcriptional regulators that subdivide the thorax into expression domains (prepattern) required for the localised activation of proneural genes [35].
  • Patterning function of homothorax/extradenticle in the thorax of Drosophila [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thorax

  • Northern blots show that topical application of JH III increases HMG-R transcript levels in male thoraces in an apparent dose- and time-dependent manner [37].
  • Lung cancer staging and management: comparison of contrast-enhanced and nonenhanced helical CT of the thorax [38].
  • In comparison with CT scanning and sonography, SS-R scintigraphy is inferior for the visualization of NHL lesions in the thorax and abdomen [39].
  • CONCLUSION: On the basis of these initial results, 3D gadolinium-enhanced MR venography may facilitate comprehensive evaluation of abnormalities of the central veins in the thorax, particularly with regard to selection of venous access sites [40].
  • Needle biopsy in the thorax. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria [41].


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  16. Probable hypersensitivity vasculitis in a dog. Rachofsky, M.A., Chester, D.K., Read, W.K., Conroy, J.D. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1989) [Pubmed]
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