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Gene Review

kkv  -  krotzkopf verkehrt

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Blimp, CG2666, CS-1, CS-1/kkv, ChSB, ...
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High impact information on kkv

  • While most of their tracheal morphogenesis defects can be attributed to the lack of chitin, when compared to krotzkopf verkehrt (kkv) chitin-synthase mutants, mmy mutants showed a stronger phenotype, suggesting that some of the mmy phenotypes, like the axon guidance defects, are chitin-independent [1].
  • Feeding larvae of the insect Lucilia cuprina on the fungal chitin synthase competitive inhibitor, nikkomycin Z resulted in strong concentration-dependent mortality of the larvae (LD50 = 280 nM) [2].
  • The complete cDNA and deduced amino-acid sequences of the first arthropod chitin synthase-like protein, LcCS-1, from the larvae of the insect L. cuprina have been determined [2].
  • Bioinformatics has been used to deduce the gene sequence and organization of the highly homologous Drosophila melanogaster orthologue of LcCS-1, DmCS-1 [2].
  • Once the late-larval ecdysone pulse is ceased completely, both DmeChSA and DmeChSB genes show a remarkable up-regulation [3].

Biological context of kkv

  • Moreover, the phenotype of CS-1/kkv mutant embryos indicates that chitin is required to attach the cuticle to the epidermal cells, thereby maintaining epidermal morphology [4].

Associations of kkv with chemical compounds


Other interactions of kkv

  • To obtain the first insight into the transcriptional regulation of chitin synthesis, we have monitored the expression of DmeChSA and DmeChSB during the periods of the late-larval and prepupal ecdysone pulses that direct metamorphosis [3].


  1. mummy/cystic encodes an enzyme required for chitin and glycan synthesis, involved in trachea, embryonic cuticle and CNS development--analysis of its role in Drosophila tracheal morphogenesis. Araújo, S.J., Aslam, H., Tear, G., Casanova, J. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Insect chitin synthase cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression. Tellam, R.L., Vuocolo, T., Johnson, S.E., Jarmey, J., Pearson, R.D. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Stage-specific expression of the chitin synthase DmeChSA and DmeChSB genes during the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis. Gagou, M.E., Kapsetaki, M., Turberg, A., Kafetzopoulos, D. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of chitin in exoskeleton morphogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Moussian, B., Schwarz, H., Bartoszewski, S., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. J. Morphol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence of a cDNA and expression of the gene encoding a putative epidermal chitin synthase of Manduca sexta. Zhu, Y.C., Specht, C.A., Dittmer, N.T., Muthukrishnan, S., Kanost, M.R., Kramer, K.J. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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