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Chemical Compound Review

Glycan     2-[4,5-dihydroxy-2- (hydroxymethyl)-6-[4,5...

Synonyms: Polyglycose, maltotriose, Polysaccharide, D-MALTOTRIOSE, DEXTRIN,BACT, ...
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Disease relevance of maltotriose

  • Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine in infancy [1].
  • We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a conjugate vaccine that links the H. influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide to the outer-membrane protein complex (OMPC) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B [2].
  • In the children with IgG2 deficiency, serum antibody concentrations to the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls, both before and after immunization with the Hib capsular polysaccharide antigen, which elicits antibody predominantly of the IgG2 subclass [3].
  • Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report [4].
  • We conclude that vaccine failure may be related in part to genetic factors, and that most vaccinated children in whom Hemophilus influenzae disease develops have deficient antibody responses to the type b polysaccharide despite normal serum concentrations of immunoglobulin and normal antibody responses to tetanus toxoid [5].

Psychiatry related information on maltotriose

  • We investigated the relationship between the form of the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) polysaccharide (PS)-protein conjugate vaccine, Id expression, and Ab quality [6].
  • This finding, along with the previous finding that experimentally-induced hypoguesia suppresses Polycose intake, indicates that olfaction is much less important than gustation in the mediation of polysaccharide appetite [7].
  • The capsule is an elaborate polysaccharide matrix that encases the entire cell surface and provides resistance against many host defense mechanisms [8].
  • An abnormal polysaccharide in the form of cytoplasmic spheroids was found in the nervous system and systemic organs of a man with a progressive neurological disorder characterized by onset at 47 years of age, severe weakness, sensory loss, and dementia [9].
  • These results suggest that immunization of mothers under certain conditions, such as with an optimum dose of antigen at a critical period of gestation or postnatal development, could provide young infants with an enhanced antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide immunogens [10].

High impact information on maltotriose

  • Glycan production and modification comprise an estimated 1% of genes in the mammalian genome [11].
  • Many of these genes encode enzymes termed glycosyltransferases and glycosidases that reside in the Golgi apparatus where they play the major role in constructing the glycan repertoire that is found at the cell surface and among extracellular compartments [11].
  • Surprisingly, conditional SIGN-R1 knockout mice developed deficits in C3 catabolism when given S. pneumoniae or its capsular polysaccharide intravenously [12].
  • PSA presented by intestinal dendritic cells activates CD4+ T cells and elicits appropriate cytokine production [13].
  • Binding sites for the heavily sialylated receptor glycophorin A are proposed based on a complex of RII with a glycan that contains the essential components required for binding [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of maltotriose


Biological context of maltotriose


Anatomical context of maltotriose


Associations of maltotriose with other chemical compounds


Gene context of maltotriose

  • Amounts of MGAT5 glycan products are commonly increased in malignancies, and correlate with disease progression [32].
  • Furthermore, Mgat5 glycan products stimulated membrane ruffling and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B activation, fueling a positive feedback loop that amplified oncogene signaling and tumor growth in vivo [32].
  • Conformation and function of the N-linked glycan in the adhesion domain of human CD2 [33].
  • We propose the iterative anionic groups along the glycan backbone of the cell wall are a crucial structure for recognition by LBP [34].
  • In conclusion, this is the first report that polysaccharide degradation products of the extracellular matrix produced during inflammation might serve as an endogenous ligand for the TLR-4 complex on DCs [35].
  • Using our system, we successfully identified glycan alterations on alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), including a novel LacdiNAc structure in addition to previously reported alterations such as alpha1,6 fucosylation [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of maltotriose


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  2. The efficacy in Navajo infants of a conjugate vaccine consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide and Neisseria meningitidis outer-membrane protein complex. Santosham, M., Wolff, M., Reid, R., Hohenboken, M., Bateman, M., Goepp, J., Cortese, M., Sack, D., Hill, J., Newcomer, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
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  4. Prevention of typhoid fever in Nepal with the Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi. A preliminary report. Acharya, I.L., Lowe, C.U., Thapa, R., Gurubacharya, V.L., Shrestha, M.B., Cadoz, M., Schulz, D., Armand, J., Bryla, D.A., Trollfors, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Hemophilus influenzae type B disease in children vaccinated with type B polysaccharide vaccine. Granoff, D.M., Shackelford, P.G., Suarez, B.K., Nahm, M.H., Cates, K.L., Murphy, T.V., Karasic, R., Osterholm, M.T., Pandey, J.P., Daum, R.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Functional differences in idiotypically defined IgG1 anti-polysaccharide antibodies elicited by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type B polysaccharide-protein conjugates. Lucas, A.H., Granoff, D.M. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of anosmia on Polycose appetite in the rat. Vigorito, M., Sclafani, A. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Capsule and fimbria interaction in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Schembri, M.A., Blom, J., Krogfelt, K.A., Klemm, P. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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  12. A dominant complement fixation pathway for pneumococcal polysaccharides initiated by SIGN-R1 interacting with C1q. Kang, Y.S., Do, Y., Lee, H.K., Park, S.H., Cheong, C., Lynch, R.M., Loeffler, J.M., Steinman, R.M., Park, C.G. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. An immunomodulatory molecule of symbiotic bacteria directs maturation of the host immune system. Mazmanian, S.K., Liu, C.H., Tzianabos, A.O., Kasper, D.L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Structural basis for the EBA-175 erythrocyte invasion pathway of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Tolia, N.H., Enemark, E.J., Sim, B.K., Joshua-Tor, L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Group A Streptococcus tissue invasion by CD44-mediated cell signalling. Cywes, C., Wessels, M.R. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Form variation in Escherichia coli K1: determined by O-acetylation of the capsular polysaccharide. Orskov, F., Orskov, I., Sutton, A., Schneerson, R., Lin, W., Egan, W., Hoff, G.E., Robbins, J.B. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. A human monoclonal macroglobulin with specificity for alpha(2----8)-linked poly-N-acetyl neuraminic acid, the capsular polysaccharide of group B meningococci and Escherichia coli K1, which crossreacts with polynucleotides and with denatured DNA. Kabat, E.A., Nickerson, K.G., Liao, J., Grossbard, L., Osserman, E.F., Glickman, E., Chess, L., Robbins, J.B., Schneerson, R., Yang, Y.H. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Pretranslational regulation of the synthesis of the third component of complement in human mononuclear phagocytes by the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide. Strunk, R.C., Whitehead, A.S., Cole, F.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Circulating polyribophosphate in Hemophilus influenzae, type b meningitis. Correlation with clinical course and antibody response. O'Reilly, R.J., Anderson, P., Ingram, D.L., Peter, G., Smith, D.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Correlation between serum IgG-2 concentrations and the antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. Siber, G.R., Schur, P.H., Aisenberg, A.C., Weitzman, S.A., Schiffman, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Immunization of pregnant women with a polysaccharide vaccine of group B streptococcus. Baker, C.J., Rench, M.A., Edwards, M.S., Carpenter, R.J., Hays, B.M., Kasper, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Capsule loss in H. influenzae type b occurs by recombination-mediated disruption of a gene essential for polysaccharide export. Kroll, J.S., Hopkins, I., Moxon, E.R. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Dietary and genetic control of glucose transporter 2 glycosylation promotes insulin secretion in suppressing diabetes. Ohtsubo, K., Takamatsu, S., Minowa, M.T., Yoshida, A., Takeuchi, M., Marth, J.D. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. PSGL-1 recognition of P-selectin is controlled by a tyrosine sulfation consensus at the PSGL-1 amino terminus. Pouyani, T., Seed, B. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Mutations in SEC63 cause autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Davila, S., Furu, L., Gharavi, A.G., Tian, X., Onoe, T., Qian, Q., Li, A., Cai, Y., Kamath, P.S., King, B.F., Azurmendi, P.J., Tahvanainen, P., Kääriäinen, H., Höckerstedt, K., Devuyst, O., Pirson, Y., Martin, R.S., Lifton, R.P., Tahvanainen, E., Torres, V.E., Somlo, S. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. A novel pathway for glycan assembly: biosynthesis of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein. Masterson, W.J., Doering, T.L., Hart, G.W., Englund, P.T. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Primary structure of human transferrin receptor deduced from the mRNA sequence. Schneider, C., Owen, M.J., Banville, D., Williams, J.G. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Abnormal mast cells in mice deficient in a heparin-synthesizing enzyme. Forsberg, E., Pejler, G., Ringvall, M., Lunderius, C., Tomasini-Johansson, B., Kusche-Gullberg, M., Eriksson, I., Ledin, J., Hellman, L., Kjellén, L. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Inflammatory toxin from Mycoplasma bovis: isolation and characterization. Geary, S.J., Tourtellotte, M.E., Cameron, J.A. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Structural basis for sugar translocation through maltoporin channels at 3.1 A resolution. Schirmer, T., Keller, T.A., Wang, Y.F., Rosenbusch, J.P. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The glycan code of the endoplasmic reticulum: asparagine-linked carbohydrates as protein maturation and quality-control tags. Hebert, D.N., Garman, S.C., Molinari, M. Trends Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Suppression of tumor growth and metastasis in Mgat5-deficient mice. Granovsky, M., Fata, J., Pawling, J., Muller, W.J., Khokha, R., Dennis, J.W. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Conformation and function of the N-linked glycan in the adhesion domain of human CD2. Wyss, D.F., Choi, J.S., Li, J., Knoppers, M.H., Willis, K.J., Arulanandam, A.R., Smolyar, A., Reinherz, E.L., Wagner, G. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Recognition of pneumococcal peptidoglycan: an expanded, pivotal role for LPS binding protein. Weber, J.R., Freyer, D., Alexander, C., Schröder, N.W., Reiss, A., Küster, C., Pfeil, D., Tuomanen, E.I., Schumann, R.R. Immunity (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Oligosaccharides of Hyaluronan activate dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4. Termeer, C., Benedix, F., Sleeman, J., Fieber, C., Voith, U., Ahrens, T., Miyake, K., Freudenberg, M., Galanos, C., Simon, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  37. Impaired antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide and low IgG2 and IgG4 concentrations in Apache children. Siber, G.R., Santosham, M., Reid, G.R., Thompson, C., Almeido-Hill, J., Morell, A., deLange, G., Ketcham, J.K., Callahan, E.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
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