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Gene Review

comD  -  sensor histidine kinase ComD

Streptococcus pneumoniae R6

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Disease relevance of comD


High impact information on comD

  • The trt mutation was localized to comD, the gene encoding the transmembrane histidine kinase [3].
  • Two such non-PBP genes have been described: a putative glycosyltransferase, CpoA, and a histidine protein kinase, CiaH [4].
  • A comC mutant did not exhibit any detectable CSP activity, while a comD mutant that contained an intact comC produced minimal CSP activity [5].
  • Overlapping expression patterns for the genes cinA and comD (G. Alloing, B. Martin, C. Granadel, and J. P. Claverys, Mol. Microbiol. 29:75-83, 1998) suggest that at least two distinct regulatory mechanisms may underlie the competence cycle [6].
  • The com operon of naturally transformable streptococcal species contains three genes, comC, comD, and comE, involved in the regulation of competence [1].

Anatomical context of comD

  • The link between mutations in the histidine protein kinase CiaH and phenotypic expression of cefotaxime resistance suggests that the cell is able to monitor the integrity of the cell wall and in emergency cases such as during the action of beta-lactams can counteract such danger [7].

Other interactions of comD

  • Null mutants with defects in either comC or comD were transformation deficient and failed to respond to exogenous CSP [5].


  1. Genetic diversity of the streptococcal competence (com) gene locus. Whatmore, A.M., Barcus, V.A., Dowson, C.G. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation of constitutive variants of a subfamily 10 histidine protein kinase (SppK) from Lactobacillus using random mutagenesis. Mathiesen, G., Axelsen, G.W., Axelsson, L., Eijsink, V.G. Arch. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Constitutive competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae caused by mutation of a transmembrane histidine kinase. Lacks, S.A., Greenberg, B. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. beta-lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: penicillin-binding proteins and non-penicillin-binding proteins. Hakenbeck, R., Grebe, T., Zähner, D., Stock, J.B. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The com locus controls genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cheng, Q., Campbell, E.A., Naughton, A.M., Johnson, S., Masure, H.R. Mol. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Gene expression analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae competence regulons by use of DNA microarrays. Peterson, S., Cline, R.T., Tettelin, H., Sharov, V., Morrison, D.A. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The ciaR/ciaH regulatory network of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Zähner, D., Kaminski, K., van der Linden, M., Mascher, T., Meral, M., Hakenbeck, R. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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