The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Cell Wall

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Cell Wall


Psychiatry related information on Cell Wall

  • Defense mechanisms of plants against pathogens often entail cell wall strengthening, ethylene biosynthesis, expression of pathogen-related proteins and hypersensitive responses (HR) [6].
  • Muramyl-dipeptide (MDP), a metabolite of bacterial cell walls, has a variety of biological effects, including the induction of acute phase serum glycoproteins and fever, and the promotion of slow wave sleep [7].
  • By contrast, Myo52 motor activity was required for both localization and cellular function. myo52Delta cells were unable to efficiently localize the beta-1,3-glucan synthase, Bgs1, either at the cell poles or at the division septum, regions of cell wall deposition [8].

High impact information on Cell Wall

  • Finally, another small G protein, Rho1, is required for activity of beta (1-->3)glucan synthase, the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of the major structural component of the yeast cell wall [9].
  • Recent studies clarified the unusual structures of arabinogalactan as well as of extractable cell wall lipids, such as trehalose-based lipooligosaccharides, phenolic glycolipids, and glycopeptidolipids [10].
  • The utility of this approach is validated by examining profiles caused by deletions of uncharacterized genes: we identify and experimentally confirm that eight uncharacterized open reading frames encode proteins required for sterol metabolism, cell wall function, mitochondrial respiration, or protein synthesis [11].
  • Elicitor- and wound-induced oxidative cross-linking of a proline-rich plant cell wall protein: a novel, rapid defense response [12].
  • Treatment of bean or soybean cells with fungal elicitor or glutathione causes a rapid insolubilization of preexisting (hydroxy)proline-rich structural proteins in the cell wall [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cell Wall


Biological context of Cell Wall

  • Arabidopsis plants with a mutation in the ANQ1 gene, an ortholog of NQK1/NtMEK1, display a dwarf phenotype, with unusually large cells that contain multiple nuclei and cell-wall stubs in various organs [17].
  • The cell wall integrity signaling pathway controlled by the small G-protein Rho1 is principally responsible for orchestrating changes to the cell wall periodically through the cell cycle and in response to various forms of cell wall stress [18].
  • Sir3 hyperphosphorylation is correlated with reduced subtelomeric silencing, increased subtelomeric cell wall gene expression, and stress resistance to chlorpromazine, but does not affect the silent HML and rDNA loci [19].
  • Lysis of pneumococci by the surfactant fraction appeared to be mediated by a detergent-like activation of pneumococcal autolysin, in that bacteriolysis was prevented by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in pneumococcal cell walls, and a pneumococcal transformant that lacked autolysin was not lysed [20].
  • On the other hand, pneumococcal cell wall, a major proinflammatory component, causes caspase-driven classical apoptosis that is mediated through TLR2 [21].

Anatomical context of Cell Wall


Associations of Cell Wall with chemical compounds

  • Cellulose is the major polysaccharide component of plant cell walls and is the most abundant organic compound on the planet [26].
  • EMB inhibits the polymerization of cell wall arabinan, and results in the accumulation of the lipid carrier decaprenol phosphoarabinose, which suggests that the drug interferes with the transfer of arabinose to the cell wall acceptor [27].
  • Vancomycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, inhibits the growth of cell walls by complex formation with peptides terminating in D-alanyl-D-alanine [28].
  • Ethambutol (EMB), a frontline antituberculous drug, targets the mycobacterial cell wall, a unique structure among prokaryotes which consists of an outer layer of mycolic acids covalently bound to peptidoglycan via the arabinogalactan [27].
  • It is known that cephalosporin antibiotics (for example, cephalothin (compound I, Table 2)) are acylating inhibitors of bacterial serine proteases which help synthesize the cell wall by performing a transpeptidation reaction on a peptidyl substrate bearing a D-Ala-D-Ala terminus [29].

Gene context of Cell Wall

  • CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial cell wall polymers stimulate IL-1 and IL-1ra expression in vivo and in vitro [30].
  • These suppression and synthetic lethal interactions, as well as reduced beta-glucan and mannan levels in the pkc1 null wall, support a role for the PKC1 pathway functioning in cell wall assembly [31].
  • We present evidence that cell wall defects activate RHO1 [32].
  • Because the presence of Chs1 in the cell abolishes lysis, it is concluded that damage to the cell wall is caused by excessive chitinase activity at acidic pH, which can normally be repaired through chitin synthesis by Chs1 [33].
  • We report that cell wall stress also induces a transient depolarized distribution of the cell wall biosynthetic enzyme glucan synthase FKS1 and its regulatory subunit RHO1, possibly as a mechanism to repair general cell wall damage [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cell Wall


  1. A covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate with saccharide distortion in a mutant T4 lysozyme. Kuroki, R., Weaver, L.H., Matthews, B.W. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Staphylococcus aureus sortase, an enzyme that anchors surface proteins to the cell wall. Mazmanian, S.K., Liu, G., Ton-That, H., Schneewind, O. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Porins in the cell wall of mycobacteria. Trias, J., Jarlier, V., Benz, R. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Coordinate regulation of beta-lactamase induction and peptidoglycan composition by the amp operon. Tuomanen, E., Lindquist, S., Sande, S., Galleni, M., Light, K., Gage, D., Normark, S. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. The toll-like receptor protein RP105 regulates lipopolysaccharide signaling in B cells. Ogata, H., Su, I., Miyake, K., Nagai, Y., Akashi, S., Mecklenbräuker, I., Rajewsky, K., Kimoto, M., Tarakhovsky, A. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of an essential component of the elicitation active site of the EIX protein elicitor. Rotblat, B., Enshell-Seijffers, D., Gershoni, J.M., Schuster, S., Avni, A. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Microiontophoretic application of muramyl-dipeptide upon single cortical, hippocampal and hypothalamic neurons in rats. Dougherty, P.M., Dafny, N. Neuropharmacology (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. A critical role for the type V myosin, Myo52, in septum deposition and cell fission during cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mulvihill, D.P., Edwards, S.R., Hyams, J.S. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of small G proteins in yeast cell polarization and wall biosynthesis. Cabib, E., Drgonová, J., Drgon, T. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The envelope of mycobacteria. Brennan, P.J., Nikaido, H. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Functional discovery via a compendium of expression profiles. Hughes, T.R., Marton, M.J., Jones, A.R., Roberts, C.J., Stoughton, R., Armour, C.D., Bennett, H.A., Coffey, E., Dai, H., He, Y.D., Kidd, M.J., King, A.M., Meyer, M.R., Slade, D., Lum, P.Y., Stepaniants, S.B., Shoemaker, D.D., Gachotte, D., Chakraburtty, K., Simon, J., Bard, M., Friend, S.H. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Elicitor- and wound-induced oxidative cross-linking of a proline-rich plant cell wall protein: a novel, rapid defense response. Bradley, D.J., Kjellbom, P., Lamb, C.J. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function. Geijtenbeek, T.B., Van Vliet, S.J., Koppel, E.A., Sanchez-Hernandez, M., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M., Appelmelk, B., Van Kooyk, Y. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Endotoxin protein: a B-cell mitogen and polyclonal activator of C3H/HeJ lymphocytes. Sultzer, B.M., Goodman, G.W. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. Reis e Sousa, C., Stahl, P.D., Austyn, J.M. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Pretranslational regulation of the synthesis of the third component of complement in human mononuclear phagocytes by the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide. Strunk, R.C., Whitehead, A.S., Cole, F.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. NQK1/NtMEK1 is a MAPKK that acts in the NPK1 MAPKKK-mediated MAPK cascade and is required for plant cytokinesis. Soyano, T., Nishihama, R., Morikiyo, K., Ishikawa, M., Machida, Y. Genes Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Cell wall integrity signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Levin, D.E. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of subtelomeric silencing during stress response. Ai, W., Bertram, P.G., Tsang, C.K., Chan, T.F., Zheng, X.F. Mol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Detection and partial characterization of antibacterial factor(s) in alveolar lining material of rats. Coonrod, J.D., Yoneda, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Bacterial programmed cell death of cerebral endothelial cells involves dual death pathways. Bermpohl, D., Halle, A., Freyer, D., Dagand, E., Braun, J.S., Bechmann, I., Schröder, N.W., Weber, J.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Human C3b/C4b receptor (CR1). Demonstration of long homologous repeating domains that are composed of the short consensus repeats characteristics of C3/C4 binding proteins. Klickstein, L.B., Wong, W.W., Smith, J.A., Weis, J.H., Wilson, J.G., Fearon, D.T. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Immunologic responsiveness of the C3H/HeJ mouse: differential ability of butanol-extracted lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evoke LPS-mediated effects. Goodman, M.G., Parks, D.E., Weigle, W.O. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Selective phagocytic paralysis induced by immobilized immune complexes. Rabinovitch, M., Manejias, R.E., Nussenzweig, V. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Monoclonal antibodies against protease-sensitive pneumococcal antigens can protect mice from fatal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. McDaniel, L.S., Scott, G., Kearney, J.F., Briles, D.E. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Structure and function of endoglucanase V. Davies, G.J., Dodson, G.G., Hubbard, R.E., Tolley, S.P., Dauter, Z., Wilson, K.S., Hjort, C., Mikkelsen, J.M., Rasmussen, G., Schülein, M. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. The emb operon, a gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in resistance to ethambutol. Telenti, A., Philipp, W.J., Sreevatsan, S., Bernasconi, C., Stockbauer, K.E., Wieles, B., Musser, J.M., Jacobs, W.R. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Structure of vancomycin and its complex with acetyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine. Sheldrick, G.M., Jones, P.G., Kennard, O., Williams, D.H., Smith, G.A. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Cephalosporin antibiotics can be modified to inhibit human leukocyte elastase. Doherty, J.B., Ashe, B.M., Argenbright, L.W., Barker, P.L., Bonney, R.J., Chandler, G.O., Dahlgren, M.E., Dorn, C.P., Finke, P.E., Firestone, R.A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Tissue interleukin 1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist expression in enterocolitis in resistant and susceptible rats. McCall, R.D., Haskill, S., Zimmermann, E.M., Lund, P.K., Thompson, R.C., Sartor, R.B. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of the yeast (1-->6)-beta-glucan biosynthetic components, Kre6p and Skn1p, and genetic interactions between the PKC1 pathway and extracellular matrix assembly. Roemer, T., Paravicini, G., Payton, M.A., Bussey, H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Cell wall integrity modulates RHO1 activity via the exchange factor ROM2. Bickle, M., Delley, P.A., Schmidt, A., Hall, M.N. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Chitin synthase 1, an auxiliary enzyme for chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cabib, E., Sburlati, A., Bowers, B., Silverman, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Cell wall stress depolarizes cell growth via hyperactivation of RHO1. Delley, P.A., Hall, M.N. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Reversal of acute and chronic synovial inflammation by anti-transforming growth factor beta. Wahl, S.M., Allen, J.B., Costa, G.L., Wong, H.L., Dasch, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Collapsed xylem phenotype of Arabidopsis identifies mutants deficient in cellulose deposition in the secondary cell wall. Turner, S.R., Somerville, C.R. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Phosphate-starvation response in plant cells: de novo synthesis and degradation of acid phosphatases. Duff, S.M., Plaxton, W.C., Lefebvre, D.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Exploring the basis of peptide-carbohydrate crossreactivity: evidence for discrimination by peptides between closely related anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Harris, S.L., Craig, L., Mehroke, J.S., Rashed, M., Zwick, M.B., Kenar, K., Toone, E.J., Greenspan, N., Auzanneau, F.I., Marino-Albernas, J.R., Pinto, B.M., Scott, J.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Opsonization of encapsulated Staphylococcus aureus: the role of specific antibody and complement. Verbrugh, H.A., Peterson, P.K., Nguyen, B.Y., Sisson, S.P., Kim, Y. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities