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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Relaxing effects of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP-enhancing agents on the long-lasting contraction to endothelin-1 in the porcine coronary artery.

In the coronary circulation, endothelin-1 (ET-1) evokes spasms which are difficult to treat when the endothelial integrity is compromised. This study compares several classes of relaxing agents on already established contractions to ET-1 in an in vitro model using ring segments of the porcine left descending coronary artery (pLAD). All segments were precontracted with 10 nmol/L ET-1. The calcium channel blocker isradipine was 300 times more potent than verapamil, but was only a partial relaxant; the maximal relaxation obtained was 52 +/- 2% (n = 6). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was an equally potent relaxant of the ET-1 contraction; however, it too was an incomplete relaxant, maximal relaxation being < 60%. A 50% relaxation of the ET-1 contraction was obtained with 0.28 +/- 0.24 mumol/L ANP, n = 4 (IC50). Comparison of cyclic nucleotide analogues revealed a 30 times higher potency for 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP)(IC50 44 +/- 11 mumol/L, n = 6) than for 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Bi-cAMP) (IC50 1600 mumol/L, n = 6). The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor milrinone, a PDE 3-inhibitor with an IC50 2.4 +/- 1.8 mumol/L, (n = 6) was 10 times more potent than rolipram (PDE 4-inhibitor), zaprinast (PDE 5-inhibitor) and vinpocentine (PDE 1-inhibitor). Withdrawal of these analogues and inhibitors from segments continuously exposed to 10 nmol/l ET-1 revealed that vinpocentine and 8-Br-cGMP were irreversible relaxants, in contrast to milrinone and 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that cGMP-enhancing agents, such as the naturally occurring ANP, the calcium channel blocker isradipine, and the synthetic inhibitor of PDE 3, were the most effective relaxants of ET-1 evoked contractions in pLAD in vitro.[1]


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