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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Spasm


Psychiatry related information on Spasm


High impact information on Spasm

  • In two women the spasms or restlessness of the legs decreased, without any change in the dystonia [11].
  • Diazepam was used for relief of pain or muscle spasm, or anxiety and sleeplessness associated with these two symptoms, and was considered to be beneficial by 83% of the patients, although use of other drugs confounded this evaluation [12].
  • Coronary artery spasms occurred spontaneously or were induced by intracoronary acetylcholine (10-100 micrograms) [13].
  • Baclofen is the most effective drug for the treatment of rigidity and spasms caused by damage to the spinal cord, but frequently, relatively little relief is afforded and dose is limited by central side-effects [14].
  • Salbutamol seemed to relieve the laryngeal spasms and consequently eased the infant's breathing difficulties [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Spasm

  • Intravenous nitroglycerin and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists promptly relieved the spasms [16].
  • Also, other signs that often are included in the spastic syndrome, including clonus, increased flexor reflex activity, and flexor spasms, did not result from DLF lesions [17].
  • We used positron emission tomography (PET) to determine local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (1CMRG1c) in 44 infants with spasms, in an attempt to define the neuroanatomical substrates that mediate these seizures [18].
  • Moderate or severe discomfort or bladder spasms were reported in 84% of the patients who received bladder irrigation, compared with 2% of the patients who received mesna prophylaxis (P < .0001) [19].
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous reports of the efficacy and safety of vigabatrin in patients with infantile spasms, particularly among those with spasms secondary to tuberous sclerosis [20].

Biological context of Spasm


Anatomical context of Spasm

  • Treatment with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the lower-extremity weakness, reduction in flexor spasms, and slower but significant improvement in urinary symptoms [26].
  • Additionally, SNAP-25-based peptides that mimic the effect of botulinum neurotoxin A may be used for the treatment of involuntary muscle spasms [27].
  • 1 BRL 34915 (0.04-1.3 microM) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous phasic spasms of the isolated uterus of the term pregnant rat and this effect was not antagonized by propranolol [22].
  • The time relation between flexor spasms, detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity was recorded in a consecutive series of 111 patients with hyperreflexic bladder and flexor spasms [28].
  • Studies with isolated canine middle cerebral and basilar arteries clearly demonstrate that low concentrations of ethanol (e.g., less than 10 mM) can produce concentration-dependent spasms by a direct vascular action.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[29]

Gene context of Spasm

  • Tottering (tg) is an autosomal recessive mutation of the calcium channel alpha1A subunit in the mouse that results in epileptic spike and wave discharges, mild ataxia and paroxysmal episodes of involuntary spasms of the limbs, trunk and face [30].
  • The authors report a Chinese boy with a DYT1 gene mutation having muscle stiffness, severe painful muscle spasm, myoclonus, and dystonia compatible with stiff child syndrome [31].
  • Thirteen responders showed no significant (p > 0.05) change in serum NSE after cessation of epileptic spasms [32].
  • Early effects of the dose were: prevention of the tremors and spasms seen in untreated mutants, raising to normal and near-normal of caeruloplasmin oxidase and lysyl oxidase activities and pigmentation of skin and fur [33].
  • Other possible uses for CB1 receptor agonists include the suppression of muscle spasm/spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injury, the relief of chronic pain and the management of glaucoma and bronchial asthma [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spasm


  1. High-dose intravenous immune globulin for stiff-person syndrome. Dalakas, M.C., Fujii, M., Li, M., Lutfi, B., Kyhos, J., McElroy, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Dantrolene, pelvic neoplasm, and muscle spasms: report of a case. Myers, A. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Angelman syndrome: correlations between epilepsy phenotypes and genotypes. Minassian, B.A., DeLorey, T.M., Olsen, R.W., Philippart, M., Bronstein, Y., Zhang, Q., Guerrini, R., Van Ness, P., Livet, M.O., Delgado-Escueta, A.V. Ann. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathophysiology of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J.C., Day, B.L., Marsden, C.D. Brain (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Focal and global cortical hypometabolism in patients with newly diagnosed infantile spasms. Metsähonkala, L., Gaily, E., Rantala, H., Salmi, E., Valanne, L., Aärimaa, T., Liukkonen, E., Holopainen, I., Granström, M.L., Erkinjuntti, M., Grönroos, T., Sillanpää, M. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Overdose of lioresal. Paulson, G.W. Neurology (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Oxybutynin in bladder spasm, neurogenic bladder, and enuresis. Thompson, I.M., Lauvetz, R. Urology (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. A cluster of Friedreich's ataxia in Rimouski, Québec. Bouchard, J.P., Barbeau, A., Bouchard, R., Paquet, M., Bouchard, R.W. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of risperidone in overdose. Acri, A.A., Henretig, F.M. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Early quality of life benefits of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis. Guo, A., Wolfson, M., Holt, R. Kidney Int. Suppl. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of dystonia in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. van Hilten, B.J., van de Beek, W.J., Hoff, J.I., Voormolen, J.H., Delhaas, E.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Long-term use of diazepam. Hollister, L.E., Conley, F.K., Britt, R.H., Shuer, L. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Angioscopy in variant angina: coronary artery spasm and intimal injury. Etsuda, H., Mizuno, K., Arakawa, K., Satomura, K., Shibuya, T., Isojima, K. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Continuous intrathecal baclofen for severe spasticity. Penn, R.D., Kroin, J.S. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Efficacy of salbutamol in treatment of infant pertussis demonstrated by sound spectrum analysis. Peltola, H., Michelsson, K. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Coronary artery spasm in intact dogs induced by potassium and serotonin. Pérez, J.E., Saffitz, J.E., Gutiérrez, F.A., Henry, P.D. Circ. Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Stretch hyperreflexia of triceps surae muscles in the conscious cat after dorsolateral spinal lesions. Taylor, J.S., Friedman, R.F., Munson, J.B., Vierck, C.J. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Infantile spasms: II. Lenticular nuclei and brain stem activation on positron emission tomography. Chugani, H.T., Shewmon, D.A., Sankar, R., Chen, B.C., Phelps, M.E. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Mesna compared with continuous bladder irrigation as uroprotection during high-dose chemotherapy and transplantation: a randomized trial. Vose, J.M., Reed, E.C., Pippert, G.C., Anderson, J.R., Bierman, P.J., Kessinger, A., Spinolo, J., Armitage, J.O. J. Clin. Oncol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Randomized trial of vigabatrin in patients with infantile spasms. Elterman, R.D., Shields, W.D., Mansfield, K.A., Nakagawa, J. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Visualization of serotonin effects on renal vessels of rats. Endlich, K., Kühn, R., Steinhausen, M. Kidney Int. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. The relaxant action of BRL 34915 in rat uterus. Hollingsworth, M., Amédée, T., Edwards, D., Mironneau, J., Savineau, J.P., Small, R.C., Weston, A.H. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Diazepam reverses bombesin-induced gastric spasms and food intake reduction in the rat. Yound, W.G., Deutsch, J.A., Tom, T.D. Behav. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Efficacy of a low-dose regimen of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in acute skeletal muscle spasm: results of two placebo-controlled trials. Borenstein, D.G., Korn, S. Clinical therapeutics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Differences in circular muscle contraction and peristaltic motor inhibition caused by tachykinin NK1 receptor agonists in the guinea-pig small intestine. Shahbazian, A., Holzer, P. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. A patient with progressive myelopathy and antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Aboulafia, D.M., Saxton, E.H., Koga, H., Diagne, A., Rosenblatt, J.D. Arch. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. SNAP-25. Hodel, A. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Relation between flexor spasms, uninhibited detrusor contractions and anal sphincter activity. Pedersen, E., Petersen, T., Schrøder, H.D. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Peripheral and cerebrovascular actions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate: relationship to divalent cations. Altura, B.M., Altura, B.T. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Cerebellar circuitry is activated during convulsive episodes in the tottering (tg/tg) mutant mouse. Campbell, D.B., Hess, E.J. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Stiff child syndrome with mutation of DYT1 gene. Wong, V.C., Lam, C.W., Fung, C.W. Neurology (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Serum and CSF neuron-specific enolase in patients with West syndrome. Suzuki, Y., Toribe, Y., Goto, M., Kato, T., Futagi, Y. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Copper metabolism in mottled mouse mutants: copper therapy of brindled (Mobr) mice. Mann, J.R., Camakaris, J., Danks, D.M., Walliczek, E.G. Biochem. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. Cannabis and cannabinoids: pharmacology and rationale for clinical use. Pertwee, R.G. Forschende Komplementärmedizin. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and transient hypoparathyroidism during therapy with potassium phosphate in diabetic ketoacidosis. Zipf, W.B., Bacon, G.E., Spencer, M.L., Kelch, R.P., Hopwood, N.J., Hawker, C.D. Diabetes Care (1979) [Pubmed]
  36. Predicting favorable outcome in idiopathic West syndrome. Dulac, O., Plouin, P., Jambaqué, I. Epilepsia (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Cocaine-induced cerebral vascular damage can be ameliorated by Mg2+ in rat brain. Huang, Q.F., Gebrewold, A., Altura, B.T., Altura, B.M. Neurosci. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Ketorolac suppresses postoperative bladder spasms after pediatric ureteral reimplantation. Park, J.M., Houck, C.S., Sethna, N.F., Sullivan, L.J., Atala, A., Borer, J.G., Cilento, B.G., Diamond, D.A., Peters, C.A., Retik, A.B., Bauer, S.B. Anesth. Analg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. The effect of intrathecal baclofen on electrical muscle activity in spasticity. Müller, H., Zierski, J., Dralle, D., Börner, U., Hoffmann, O. J. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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