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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

Frontal bone windows for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of the conventional temporal bone window for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS) often results in difficulties in obtaining angle-corrected flow velocity measurements of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery, the posterior communicating artery, and the midline venous vasculature because of the unfavorable insonation angle. The same applies to B-mode imaging of the frontal parenchyma. However, transorbital TCCS raises problems with the insonation of the orbital lens. To overcome these drawbacks, we studied the feasibility of frontal bone windows for TCCS examinations. METHODS: In 75 healthy volunteers (mean age, 45.3+/-17.0 years; age range, 17 to 77 years), the circle of Willis and the venous midline vasculature were insonated through a lateral and paramedian frontal bone window. Insonation quality of parenchymal structures (B-mode) was graded on a 3-point scale depending on the visibility of typical parenchymal landmarks. In a similar manner, the quality of the color-/Doppler-mode imaging of the arteries of the circle of Willis and the internal cerebral veins was assessed. In 15 patients (mean age, 62.7+/-13.7 years; age range, 33 to 83 years), the color-/Doppler-mode imaging quality of the intracranial vessels before and after application of an ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent was compared. RESULTS: B-mode insonation quality was optimal to fair in 73.3% of cases using the lateral and in 52.0% of cases using the paramedian frontal bone window, with defined parenchymal structures used as reference. Insonation quality decreased in those older than 60 years. In those younger than 60 years, angle-corrected flow velocity measurements of the A2 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and the internal cerebral vein were possible in 73.6% and 60.0%, respectively. Contrast enhancement resulted in a highly significant improvement in the imaging quality of the intracranial vessels. CONCLUSIONS: The transfrontal bone windows offer new possibilities for TCCS examinations, although the insonation quality is inferior to the conventional temporal bone window in terms of failure of an acoustic window. This can be compensated for by application of an ultrasound contrast-enhancing agent.[1]

References

  1. Frontal bone windows for transcranial color-coded duplex sonography. Stolz, E., Kaps, M., Kern, A., Dorndorf, W. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
 
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