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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional characterization of the human PAX3 gene regulatory region.

Spatiotemporal expression of the PAX3 gene is tightly regulated during development. We have isolated and sequenced the 5'-flanking regulatory region of human PAX3. Primer extension and ribonuclease protection mapping revealed that transcription is initiated from a single start site downstream of a TATA-like motif in human brain and peripheral tissues. Functional dissection of the gene's 5'-flanking region, which had been fused to a luciferase reporter gene and transiently expressed in rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and cos-7 cells, indicated that the upstream region of PAX3 contains multiple positive and negative cis-acting regulatory elements. While the basal promoter is likely to be driven by two CCAAT boxes located at nucleotide positions -90 and -135, a cluster of regulatory elements acting as a strong repressor was detected between nucleotides -1200 and -650. Comparison of human and murine sequences revealed more than 90% identity in this segment. A polymorphic (CA)n repeat sequence and a G/C substitution are located 337 bp and 328 bp upstream of the transcription start site, respectively. PCR-based systematic screening for length variations in 225 unrelated individuals of a Caucasian population showed a bimodal distribution of multiple alleles containing between 13 and 30 repeat units. Although the (CA)25 variant of this PAX3 gene-linked polymorphic region (PAX3LPR) conferred lower transcriptional efficiency on the PAX3 promoter, a regulatory impact of the PAX3LPR on PAX3 expression related to brain plasticity and function remains to be demonstrated.[1]


  1. Functional characterization of the human PAX3 gene regulatory region. Okladnova, O., Syagailo, Y.V., Tranitz, M., Riederer, P., Stöber, G., Mössner, R., Lesch, K.P. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
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