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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Intracellular metabolic fate of radioactivity after injection of technetium-99m-labeled hydrazino nicotinamide derivatized proteins.

Hydrazino nicotinate (HYNIC) has been shown to produce technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled proteins and peptides of high stability with high specific activities. However, persistent localization of radioactivity was observed in nontarget tissues such as the liver and kidney after administration of [99mTc]HYNIC-labeled proteins and peptides, which compromises the diagnostic accuracy of the radiopharmaceuticals. Since lysosomes are the principal sites of intracellular catabolism of proteins and peptides, 99mTc-HYNIC-labeled galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) was prepared using tricine as a co-ligand to investigate the fate of the radiolabel after lysosomal proteolysis in hepatocytes. When injected into mice, over 90% of the injected radioactivity was accumulated in the liver after 10 min injection. At 24 h postinjection, ca. 40% of the injected radioactivity still remained in liver lysosomes. Size-exclusion HPLC analyses of liver homogenates at 24 h postinjection showed a broad radioactivity peak ranging from molecular masses of 0.5-50 kDa. RP-HPLC analyses of liver homogenates suggested the presence of multiple radiolabeled species. However, most of the radioactivity migrated to lower molecular weight fractions on size-exclusion HPLC after treatment of the liver homogenates with sodium triphenylphosphine-3-monosulfonate (TPPMS). The TPPMS-treated liver homogenates showed a major peak at a retention time similar to that of [[99mTc](HYNIC-lysine)(tricine)(TPPMS)] on RP-HPLC. Similar results were obtained with urine and fecal samples. These findings suggested that the chemical bonding between 99mTc and HYNIC remains stable in the lysosomes and following excretion from the body. The persistent localization of radioactivity in the liver could be attributed to the slow elimination rate of the final radiometabolite, [[99mTc](HYNIC-lysine)(tricine)2], from lysosomes, and subsequent dissociation of one of the tricine co-ligands in the low pH environment of the lysosomes in the absence of excess co-ligands, followed by binding proteins present in the organelles. The findings in this study also suggested that the development of appropriate co-ligands capable of preserving stable bonding with the Tc center is essential to reduce the residence time of radioactivity in nontarget tissues after administration of [99mTc]HYNIC-labeled proteins and peptides.[1]


  1. Intracellular metabolic fate of radioactivity after injection of technetium-99m-labeled hydrazino nicotinamide derivatized proteins. Ono, M., Arano, Y., Uehara, T., Fujioka, Y., Ogawa, K., Namba, S., Mukai, T., Nakayama, M., Saji, H. Bioconjug. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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