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Disease relevance of Radioactivity


Psychiatry related information on Radioactivity

  • The effect of several treatments with CXM on memory of a 1-trial passive avoidance task provided data for analysis of the relationship between the degrees of amnesia and those of the more accurate estimates of inhibition of protein synthesis based upon the specific radioactivity of tyrosine [6].
  • Interestingly, the patients with mild depressive symptoms or without (i.e. HDRS-score < or = 16) had significantly higher serum IL 8 levels (p = 0.027) and increased radioactivity uptake ratio in the pons (P = 0.036) than the patients with more severe depressive symptoms (i.e. HDRS-score > 16) [7].

High impact information on Radioactivity

  • Cultured fibroblasts showed an absolute growth requirement for methionine, defective incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]5-methyltetrahydrofolate into protein, and normal incorporation of radioactivity from [14C]propionate, thus assigning the intracellular defect to methionine synthesis [8].
  • Urinary radioactivity, originating from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled by [8-(14)C]adenine, increased to 127 to 149 per cent of base-line values [9].
  • In radiolabeling experiments with 14C-amino acids, no radioactivity was detected in intracellular or extracellular alpha 2M [10].
  • RNA derived from the mRNP sedimented between 5S and 40S on sucrose density gradients, with the greatest radioactivity in the region of 15S [11].
  • The total release of radioactivity is estimated to be out of the order of 1-2 x 10(18) Bq (3-5 x 10(7) Ci) not allowing for releases of the xenon and krypton gases [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Radioactivity

  • In contrast, release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity from E. coli containing [3H]thymidine was not affected by pretreatment of bacteria with elastase inactivator before feeding them to PMN, suggesting that phagocytosis of E. coli had not been inhibited by the chloromethyl ketone [1].
  • Leucine pulse-labeling in the rat demonstrated that in the rapidly proliferating hepatoma 3924A the ratio of radioactivity of synthase II to that of total cytosolic protein was 168.2 +/- 11.0 (SE) X 10(-3) [13].
  • Reactions of cell extracts with antiserum to Tween-ether-disrupted purified murine leukemia virus revealed, in most transformed cells, two components with a mobility of about 100,000 daltons, whereas C-type virus-infected cells revealed their radioactivity mainly in a region nearer to that of the major viral glycoprotein at about 69,000 daltons [14].
  • PURPOSE: A phase I/II study was designed to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of iodine 125-labeled monoclonal antibody A33 (125I-mAb A33), its limiting organ toxicity, and the uptake and retention of radioactivity in tumor lesions [15].
  • However, at higher doses of [3H]methotrexate (300 mug/kg body weight), more than 30% of the radioactivity remaining in the tissue 24 hr after administration could be attributed to a metabolite of methotrexate [16].

Biological context of Radioactivity


Anatomical context of Radioactivity


Associations of Radioactivity with chemical compounds

  • Following binding, internalization of radioactivity was observed; this process was energy-dependent as it could be prevented totally by azide or dinitrophenol (DNP) [27].
  • Rats dosed orally which [carboxyl-14C]cyclopropanecarboxylic acid (or its hexadecyl ester) retain radioactivity in tissue as novel triacylglycerols [28].
  • Stimulation of hormone release from isolated labeled neural lobes and subsequent isolation of neurosecretory granules at different times after the injection of labeled cysteine shows that the radioactivity decreases in only one population of granules [29].
  • After reaching a maximum at 3 to 5 minutes after injection, liver radioactivity rapidly declined and free iodide appeared in the plasma [30].
  • Even 120 minutes later over 91 percent of the total radioactivity in the superfusates was attributable to tritiated gamma-aminobutyric acid [31].

Gene context of Radioactivity

  • Human prolactin (hPRL) was utilized for 343 tumors with 36% of the tumors binding 1% or greater of the added radioactivity [32].
  • Kinetic and nuclear labeling studies indicated that this effect of IFN-gamma was not due to altered thymidine transport or specific radioactivity of TdR in the cell [33].
  • When TFPI lacking the C-terminal basic region was used instead of full-length TFPI, most of the radioactivity was found in serum rather than in fibrin clots [34].
  • Omission of unlabeled EGF during the chase period markedly decreased the amount of radioactivity in the incubation medium, mainly as a result of the rebinding of EGF to the cells [35].
  • ERK2 also incorporated radioactivity of [gamma(32)P]ATP into recombinant Sp1 [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Radioactivity


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  6. Studies of memory: a reevaluation in mice of the effects of inhibitors on the rate of synthesis of cerebral proteins as related to amnesia. Rainbow, T.C., Hoffman, P.L., Flexner, L.B. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1980) [Pubmed]
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  11. Messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes isolated with oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography from kidney polysomes. Irwin, D., Kumar, A., Malt, R.A. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Chernobyl radionuclides in a Black Sea sediment trap. Buesseler, K.O., Livingston, H.D., Honjo, S., Hay, B.J., Manganini, S.J., Degens, E., Ittekkot, V., Izdar, E., Konuk, T. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
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  14. Demonstration of different glycosylated antigens in C-type virus-transformed and infected rat cells by antiserum to murine leukemia virus. Rieber, M., Bacalao, J., Rieber, M., Alonso, G. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Phase I/II study of iodine 125-labeled monoclonal antibody A33 in patients with advanced colon cancer. Welt, S., Scott, A.M., Divgi, C.R., Kemeny, N.E., Finn, R.D., Daghighian, F., Germain, J.S., Richards, E.C., Larson, S.M., Old, L.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The influence of folate antagonists on the metabolism of folic acid and its reduced derivatives in rat liver and kidney. Bühring, U., Shin, Y.S., Fölsch, E. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Incorporation of tritiated uridine into DNA of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Yost, B.K., Rosenberg, M.J., Nishioka, D.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of procollagen gene expression by retinoids. Inhibition of collagen production by retinoic acid accompanied by reduced type I procollagen messenger ribonucleic acid levels in human skin fibroblast cultures. Oikarinen, H., Oikarinen, A.I., Tan, E.M., Abergel, R.P., Meeker, C.A., Chu, M.L., Prockop, D.J., Uitto, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Association of the tyrosine phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor with a 55-kD tyrosine phosphorylated protein at the cell surface and in endosomes. Wada, I., Lai, W.H., Posner, B.I., Bergeron, J.J. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Cyp7b, a novel brain cytochrome P450, catalyzes the synthesis of neurosteroids 7alpha-hydroxy dehydroepiandrosterone and 7alpha-hydroxy pregnenolone. Rose, K.A., Stapleton, G., Dott, K., Kieny, M.P., Best, R., Schwarz, M., Russell, D.W., Björkhem, I., Seckl, J., Lathe, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Fast axonal transport in the presence of high Ca2+: evidence that microtubules are not required. Brady, S.T., Crothers, S.D., Nosal, C., McClure, W.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Androgen concentration in motor neurons of cranial nerves and spinal cord. Sar, M., Stumpf, W.E. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Clearance of NH2-terminal propeptides of types I and III procollagen is a physiological function of the scavenger receptor in liver endothelial cells. Melkko, J., Hellevik, T., Risteli, L., Risteli, J., Smedsrød, B. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Bile alcohol metabolism in man. Conversion of 5beta-cholestane-3alpha, 7alpha,12alpha, 25-tetrol to cholic acid. Salen, G., Shefer, S., Setoguchi, T., Mosbach, E.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Impaired uptake of glutathione by hepatic mitochondria from chronic ethanol-fed rats. Tracer kinetic studies in vitro and in vivo and susceptibility to oxidant stress. Fernández-Checa, J.C., García-Ruiz, C., Ookhtens, M., Kaplowitz, N. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Lysosomal association of internalized 125I-insulin in isolated rat hepatocytes. Direct demonstration by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. Carpentier, J.L., Gorden, P., Freychet, P., Le Cam, A., Orci, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Acceptors for botulinum neurotoxin reside on motor nerve terminals and mediate its internalization. Dolly, J.O., Black, J., Williams, R.S., Melling, J. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid: chain elongation to omega-cyclopropyl fatty acids by mammals and plants. Schooley, D.A., Quistad, G.B., Staiger, L.E. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Neurosecretory granules: evidence from an aging process within the neurohypophysis. Nordmann, J.J., Labouesse, J. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. [123I]Insulin metabolism in normal rats and humans: external detection by a scintillation camera. Sodoyez, J.C., Sodoyez-Goffaux, F., Guillaume, M., Merchie, G. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. [Release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from cat colon.]. Taniyama, K., Kusunoki, M., Saito, N., Tanaka, C. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  32. Prolactin receptors in human breast tumors. Turcot-Lemay, L., Kelly, P.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  33. Immune interferon inhibits proliferation and induces 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Warner, S.J., Friedman, G.B., Libby, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. A novel degradation pathway of tissue factor pathway inhibitor: incorporation into fibrin clot and degradation by thrombin. Ohkura, N., Enjyoji, K., Kamikubo, Y., Kato, H. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Attenuated processing of epidermal growth factor in the face of marked degradation of transforming growth factor-alpha. Korc, M., Finman, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Nerve growth factor uses Ras/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascades to up-regulate the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 promoter. Liu, A., Prenger, M.S., Norton, D.D., Mei, L., Kusiak, J.W., Bai, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Isotope kinetics of human skin cholesterol secretion. Nikkari, T., Schreibman, P.H., Ahrens, E.H. J. Exp. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  38. Studies of Factors V and VIII:C in an animal model of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Giles, A.R., Nesheim, M.E., Mann, K.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Metabolism of bovine parathyroid hormone. Immunological and biological characteristics of fragments generated by liver perfusion. Canterbury, J.M., Bricker, L.A., Levey, G.S., Kozlovskis, P.L., Ruiz, E., Zull, J.E., Reiss, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  40. A patient with platelets deficient in glycoprotein VI that lack both collagen-induced aggregation and adhesion. Moroi, M., Jung, S.M., Okuma, M., Shinmyozu, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  41. Inhibition of Na+/H+ exchange in the rat is associated with decreased ursodeoxycholate hypercholeresis, decreased secretion of unconjugated urodeoxycholate, and increased ursodeoxycholate glucuronidation. Lake, J.R., Renner, E.L., Scharschmidt, B.F., Cragoe, E.J., Hagey, L.R., Lambert, K.J., Gurantz, D., Hofmann, A.F. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
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