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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in agitated cultures at pH 4.5.

The biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) (175 microM) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium with molasses and citric acid at pH 4.5 was studied. In less than 2 weeks, TNT disappeared completely, but mineralization (liberated 14CO2) did not exceed 1%. A time study revealed the presence of several intermediates, marked by the initial formation of two monohydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes (2- and 4-HADNT) followed by their successive transformation to several other products, including monoaminodinitrotoluenes (ADNT). A group of nine acylated intermediates were also detected. They included 2-N-acetylamido-4,6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer, 2-formylamido-4, 6-dinitrotoluene and its p isomer (as acylated ADNT), 4-N-acetylamino-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene and 4-N-formylamido-2-amino-6-nitrotoluene (as acetylated DANT), 4-N-acetylhydroxy-2,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-N-acetoxy-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (as acetylated HADNT), and finally 4-N-acetylamido-2-hydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene. Furthermore, a fraction of HADNTs were found to rearrange to their corresponding phenolamines (Bamberger rearrangement), while another group dimerized to azoxytoluenes which in turn transformed to azo compounds and eventually to the corresponding hydrazo derivatives. After 30 days, all of these metabolites, except traces of 4-ADNT and the hydrazo derivatives, disappeared, but mineralization did not exceed 10% even after the incubation period was increased to 120 days. The biotransformation of TNT was accompanied by the appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin-dependent peroxidase (LiP) activities. MnP activity was observed almost immediately after TNT disappearance, which was the period marked by the appearance of the initial metabolites (HADNT and ADNT), whereas the LiP activity was observed after 8 days of incubation, corresponding to the appearance of the acyl derivatives. Both MnP and LiP activities reached their maximum levels (100 and 10 U/liter, respectively) within 10 to 15 days after inoculation.[1]


  1. Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in agitated cultures at pH 4.5. Hawari, J., Halasz, A., Beaudet, S., Paquet, L., Ampleman, G., Thiboutot, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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