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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phosphorylation-dependent Akt cleavage in neural cell in vitro reconstitution of apoptosis.

Neuronal apoptotic execution uses a cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation mechanism that is conserved in other cell types. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and its downstream effector, Akt/protein kinase B, appear to control this mechanism and govern the life/death decision. We have developed a cell-free system using cytosol from human neuroblastoma (SY5Y) cells that reconstitutes biochemical features of neuronal apoptosis. In the presence of cytochrome c and ATP, caspase-9 and -3 were activated, which initiated chromatin condensation and DNA cleavage in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) nuclei. Akt was cleaved in reactions where caspase-3 was activated and its cleavage was prevented by the caspase inhibitor DEVD-aldehyde. The phosphatase inhibitors orthovanadate and okadaic acid prevented catalytic processing and activation of caspase-3 and digestion of Akt and partially inhibited cleavage of caspase-9. Caspase-dependent destruction of Akt irreversibly inactivates this key mediator of survival signaling, ensuring that the execution pathway will prevail.[1]


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