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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Alteration of pRb/p16/cdk4 regulation in human osteosarcoma.

Cell-cycle regulation depends on a fine balance between cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and a family of kinase inhibitors that bind cyclin-cdk complexes and block their activity. To investigate the role of mechanisms regulating cell-cycle progression in human osteosarcomas (OS), pRb/p16/cdk4 expression was analyzed in 39 high-grade OS; 19 of these developed metastasis during follow-up. Positive reaction for functional pRB was shown by 18/39 (46%) OS, while 21/39 (54%) were negative. A higher probability of metastasis was seen in patients with negative pRb expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, while functional pRb and D1 expression are inversely associated to metastasis occurrence, the presence of D1/cdk4 complex in our study was related to poor prognosis. We found that 10/18 pRb-positive and 14/21 pRb-negative tumors were p16-positive. No significant correlation was found between pRb and p16 expression. On the other hand, high cdk4 levels in p16-positive tumors as compared with p16-negative tumors resulted in a positive association between p16 and cdk4 expression (Chi squared = 5.98; p = 0.01). No extensive p16INK4A genomic alterations were found in tumors lacking p16-protein expression. To determine which mechanisms are involved in the down-regulation of p16 protein, the methylation status of the p16INK4 gene was evaluated on the 15 p16-negative tumors: 8 samples showed 5' CpG-island methylation; 4/8 had a complete methylation status, while in the remaining 4 the gene was only partially methylated. These data confirm the role of the pRb/p16/cdk4 pathway in OS development.[1]


  1. Alteration of pRb/p16/cdk4 regulation in human osteosarcoma. Benassi, M.S., Molendini, L., Gamberi, G., Ragazzini, P., Sollazzo, M.R., Merli, M., Asp, J., Magagnoli, G., Balladelli, A., Bertoni, F., Picci, P. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
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