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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Preparation, purification, and characterization of a reversibly lipidized desmopressin with potentiated anti-diuretic activity.

PURPOSE:. To prepare and characterize a reversibly lipidized dipalmitoyl desmopressin (DPP), and to compare its anti-diuretic efficacy and biodistribution with that of unmodified desmopressin (DDAVP). METHODS: Dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to reduce the intramolecular disulfide bond in DDAVP, and the reduced DDAVP was treated with a thiopyridine-containing disulfide lipidization reagent, Pal- CPD. The product, DPP, was purified by acid precipitation and, subsequently, by size-exclusion chromatography. Reversed-phase HPLC was used to analyze the purity and to evaluate the hydrophobicity of the product. Mass spectrometry was employed to characterize its molecular structure. The biological activity of DPP was demonstrated by the antidiuretic effects in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats. Preliminary pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of intravenously injected DDAVP and DPP were carried out in CF-1 mice. RESULTS: DDAVP was readily reduced by a 2-fold molar excess of DTT at 37 degrees C for 0.5 hr. DPP was formed by the reaction of reduced DDAVP with Pal- CPD. Each DPP molecule contains two palmitic acid moieties, which link to the peptide via two disulfide bonds. After acid precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography, the purity was found to be approximately 95%, and the overall yield was 57%. When DPP was administered subcutaneously to Brattleboro rats, the potency of the anti-diuretic activity of DDAVP was enhanced to more than 250-fold. The plasma concentration of intravenously injected DDAVP in mice decreased rapidly during the first 20 min and followed by a slow elimination rate. However, in DPP administered mice, the plasma concentration actually increased in the first 20 min, followed by a slow elimination with a rate similar to that in DDAVP-injected mice. The regeneration of DDAVP was detected in the plasma of mice treated with DPP. Studies of the organ distribution in mice indicated that the liver retention of DPP was longer than that of DDAVP. On the other hand, the intestinal excretion of DPP was significantly less than that of DDAVP. CONCLUSIONS: The 250-fold increase of the anti-diuretic potency in DPP is most likely due to a slow elimination and prolonged tissue retention, together with the regeneration of active DDAVP, in the animals. Our results indicate that reversible lipidization is a simple and effective approach for improving the efficacy of many peptide drugs.[1]


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