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Chemical Compound Review

Sputolysin     1,4-bis-sulfanylbutane-2,3- diol

Synonyms: Dithiotreitol, Dithiothreitol, DL-DTT, CHEMBL47903, CCRIS 3617, ...
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Disease relevance of Sputolysin

  • The absorbance at 550 nm of the solution of both the galactosemic and the diabetic cataracts could be decreased by approximately 50% with the addition of dithioerythritol (50 mM) [1].
  • In hepatoma cells, after a 1-min pulse with radiolabeled amino acids, labeled apoB28 migrated during gel electrophoresis in the folded position and was resistant to reduction in vivo with 2 mM DTT [2].
  • The apparent Km and maximum velocity for T4 5'-D in homogenates of prolactinoma at 20 mmol/L DTT were 11 nmol/L and 1.54 pmol/mg protein.h, respectively [3].
  • Electrophoretic analysis of untreated and trypsin-treated rhesus rotavirus (RRV) and simain rotavirus SA11 in the presence and absence of the reducing agent dithioerythritol revealed that VP4 and its cleavage fragments VP5* and VP8* possessed intrachain disulfide bonds [4].
  • Studies on sulphoxide reduction by Escherichia coli showed that NADH, NADPH and dithiothreitol (DTT), but not acetaldehyde could act as cofactors [5].

High impact information on Sputolysin

  • In addition, diamide causes an inhibition of microtubule polymerization, reversible with dithioerythritol [6].
  • After treatment with KOH, trimethylamine, or dithioerythritol, the polypeptide masses are obtained [7].
  • Immunoblotting studies identified multiple NK cell plasma membrane-associated proteins to be reduced by DTT under LFA-1-activating conditions, but similar effects were also promoted by reducing agent treatments that failed to alter adhesive function [8].
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3 [9].
  • There was no spontaneous disaggregation of the big species into smaller subunits nor did 8 M urea alone, dithioerythritol alone, boiling with a mixture of 8 M urea and dithioerythritol, or RNase alter its apparent molecular weight [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Sputolysin


Biological context of Sputolysin


Anatomical context of Sputolysin


Associations of Sputolysin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Sputolysin


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Sputolysin

  • The gel filtration and the CD studies suggest that above pH 7 a more open conformation of RMAK obtains in the presence of DTT [31].
  • Reduction of C135S-C32S with dithiothreitol (DTT) results in a decrease of epsilon454 to a value similar to that of TrR C135S, and subsequent NH4Cl titration leads to charge transfer complex formation in the nascent TrR C135S [32].
  • Graft survival was examined in 15 renal allograft recipients from a group of 20 patients with IgM autolymphocytotoxic antibody that could be removed in a crossmatch assay using a reducing agent, dithioerythritol (DTE) [20].
  • However, in 0.1 M 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid (pH 6.9) and 2 mM dithioerythritol (with no Mg2+), tubulin rapidly releases approximately 0.4 mol of bound nucleotides during two successive gel filtrations requiring less than 0.5 h and regains the ability to polymerize when magnesium and GTP are immediately added to the buffer [33].
  • When these 10 AHG-XM (+) sera were treated with dithioerythritol (to inactivate IgM) all 10 converted to a negative reactivity, indicating that a positive crossmatch due to IgM reactivity should not be considered a contraindication to cardiac transplantation [34].


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  2. Folding of the amino-terminal domain of apolipoprotein B initiates microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-dependent lipid transfer to nascent very low density lipoprotein. Ingram, M.F., Shelness, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Thyroxine 5'-deiodinase in human anterior pituitary tumors. Itagaki, Y., Yoshida, K., Ikeda, H., Kaise, K., Kaise, N., Yamamoto, M., Sakurada, T., Yoshinaga, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Location of intrachain disulfide bonds in the VP5* and VP8* trypsin cleavage fragments of the rhesus rotavirus spike protein VP4. Patton, J.T., Hua, J., Mansell, E.A. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Sulphoxide reduction by rat intestinal flora and by Escherichia coli in vitro. Lee, S.C., Renwick, A.G. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines on the development and metabolism of sea urchin eggs. Involvement of NADP and glutathione. Nath, J., Rebhun, J.I. J. Cell Biol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. Hydrophobic surfactant-associated polypeptides: SP-C is a lipopeptide with two palmitoylated cysteine residues, whereas SP-B lacks covalently linked fatty acyl groups. Curstedt, T., Johansson, J., Persson, P., Eklund, A., Robertson, B., Löwenadler, B., Jörnvall, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Evidence for a dithiol-activated signaling pathway in natural killer cell avidity regulation of leukocyte function antigen-1: structural requirements and relationship to phorbol ester- and CD16-triggered pathways. Edwards, B.S., Curry, M.S., Southon, E.A., Chong, A.S., Graf, L.H. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals. Turrini, F., Naitana, A., Mannuzzu, L., Pescarmona, G., Arese, P. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a high-molecular-weight nonfunctional protein in L1210 leukemia cells with common antigenic determinants to dihydrofolate reductase. Rothenberg, S.P., Iqbal, M.P. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. In vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of diphenylarsinic acid, a degradation product of chemical warfare agents. Ochi, T., Suzuki, T., Isono, H., Kaise, T. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma tetrahydrobiopterin and its pharmacokinetic following oral administration. Fiege, B., Ballhausen, D., Kierat, L., Leimbacher, W., Goriounov, D., Schircks, B., Thöny, B., Blau, N. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitrate reductase from Azotobacter chroococcum. Inactivation by oxidizing agents and reactivation with dithioerythritol. Vila, R., Llobell, A., Bárcena, J.A., Paneque, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Chlorpromazine and dithioerythritol protection against acute ethanol toxicity. Gailis, L., Tourigny, A. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Production of a motility factor by a newly established lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Klominek, J., Robért, K.H., Bergh, J., Hjerpe, A., Gahrton, G., Sundqvist, K.G. Anticancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Folding and maturation of tyrosinase-related protein-1 are regulated by the post-translational formation of disulfide bonds and by N-glycan processing. Negroiu, G., Dwek, R.A., Petrescu, S.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of adenylate cyclase of rat brain by lipid peroxidation. Baba, A., Lee, E., Ohta, A., Tatsuno, T., Iwata, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Formation of a polymethylene bis(disulfide) intersubunit cross-link between cysteine-281 residues in rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase using octamethylene bis(methane[35S]thiosulfonate). Bloxham, D.P., Cooper, G.K. Biochemistry (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. The acyl carrier protein of malonate decarboxylase of Malonomonas rubra contains 2'-(5"-phosphoribosyl)-3'-dephosphocoenzyme A as a prosthetic group. Berg, M., Hilbi, H., Dimroth, P. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Successful renal allografts in recipients with crossmatch-positive, dithioerythritol-treated negative sera. Race, transplant history, and HLA-DR1 phenotype. Barger, B., Shroyer, T.W., Hudson, S.L., Deierhoi, M.H., Barber, W.H., Curtis, J.J., Julian, B.A., Luke, R.G., Diethelm, A.G. Transplantation (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Photoaffinity labeling of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors of rat heart. Terman, B.I., Insel, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Triiodothyronine generation from thyroxine in human thyroid: enhanced conversion in Graves' thyroid tissue. Ishii, H., Inada, M., Tanaka, K., Mashio, Y., Naito, K., Nishikawa, M., Imura, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Diamide effect on the hypertonic calcium uptake by rat red blood cells. Branca, D., Scutari, G., Siliprandi, N. J. Cell. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. Large molecular weight TSH-beta: the sole immunoactive form of TSH-beta in certain human sera. Kourides, I.A., Weintraub, B.D., Maloof, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Selective activation of mitomycin A by thiols to form DNA cross-links and monoadducts: biochemical basis for the modulation of mitomycin cytotoxicity by the quinone redox potential. Paz, M.M., Das, A., Palom, Y., He, Q.Y., Tomasz, M. J. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemical deacylation reduces the adhesive properties of proteolipid protein and leads to decompaction of the myelin sheath. Bizzozero, O.A., Bixler, H.A., Davis, J.D., Espinosa, A., Messier, A.M. J. Neurochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Homocysteine and other thiols in plasma and urine: automated determination and sample stability. Fiskerstrand, T., Refsum, H., Kvalheim, G., Ueland, P.M. Clin. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Human deoxycytidine kinase as a deoxyribonucleoside phosphorylase. Usova, E., Maltseva, T., Földesi, A., Chattopadhayaya, J., Eriksson, S. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Oxidative stress-driven mechanisms of nordihydroguaiaretic acid-induced apoptosis in FL5.12 cells. Deshpande, V.S., Kehrer, J.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Thymidylate synthase as a target enzyme for the melanoma-specific toxicity of 4-S-cysteaminylphenol and N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol. Prezioso, J.A., Wang, N., Bloomer, W.D. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Evidence for conformers of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase. Russell, P.J., Chinn, E., Williams, A., David-Dimarino, C., Taulane, J.P., Lopez, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. A stable mixed disulfide between thioredoxin reductase and its substrate, thioredoxin: preparation and characterization. Wang, P.F., Veine, D.M., Ahn, S.H., Williams, C.H. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Release of exchangeably bound guanine nucleotides from tubulin in a magnesium-free buffer. Croom, H.B., Correia, J.J., Baty, L.T., Williams, R.C. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. The relationship among donor-recipient HLA mismatches, rejection, and death from coronary artery disease in cardiac transplant recipients. Kerman, R.H., Kimball, P., Scheinen, S., Radovancevic, B., Van Buren, C.T., Kahan, B.D., Frazier, O.H. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
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