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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activating protein-1 activity is modulated by nitric oxide-mediated protein kinase G activation.

We tested the hypothesis that protein kinase (PK)G activation in response to nitric oxide ((*)NO) mediates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced activation of the transcription factor activating protein-1 (AP-1) in pulmonary microvessel endothelial monolayers (PEM). The DNA-binding activity of AP-1 was assessed using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. TNF treatment (1,000 U/ml) for 4 h induced a significant increase in DNA binding of AP-1. The effects of TNF were prevented by the superoxide radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (SOD) (100 U/ml), the (*)NO synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (100 microM), the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100 microM), and the PKG inhibitors KT5823 (1 microM) and 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-thioate (100 microM). Spermine-NO (1 microM) and L-arginine (400 microM) prevented the aminoguanidine-induced ablation of AP-1 activation in response to TNF. Phosphorylation of H-Arg-Lys-Ile-Ser-Ala-Ser-Glu-Phe-Asp-Arg-Pro-Leu-Arg-OH (BPDEtide), a specific substrate for PKG, measured the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). TNF for 0.5 h induced an increase in PKG activity that was prevented by aminoguanidine, ODQ, KT5823, and 8-bromo-cGMP-thioate; however, SOD had no effect. The PKG agonist 8-bromo-cGMP (100 microM), when given alone, increased PKG activity but induced significant DNA-binding activity of AP-1 only when given in the ODQ + TNF Group. SIN-1 (1 mM, a peroxynitrite agonist) increased DNA-binding activity of AP-1. SOD prevented SIN-1-induced AP-1 activation, a response similar to that of the SOD + TNF Group. PEM were transfected with the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid pBLCAT2, which contains a regulation sequence responsive to AP-1. The pharmacologic profile of TNF- induced CAT activity was identical to TNF- induced DNA binding by AP-1. Thus, TNF- induced AP-1-dependent gene transcription is modulated by (*)NO-dependent mediated activation of PKG.[1]


  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activating protein-1 activity is modulated by nitric oxide-mediated protein kinase G activation. Gertzberg, N., Clements, R., Jaspers, I., Ferro, T.J., Neumann, P., Flescher, E., Johnson, A. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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