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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activity of monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric flavonoids on NO production, TNF-alpha secretion, and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Flavonoids are potent antioxidants and have been associated with lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the effect of flavonoids (monomers, dimers and a trimer) as well as French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol, on NO production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity was compared. Monomers and dimers repressed NO production, TNF-alpha secretion and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression induced by interferon gamma, whereas the trimeric procyanidin C2 and Pycnogenol enhanced these parameters. In addition, in unstimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, both procyanidin C2 and Pycnogenol increased TNF-alpha secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that procyanidins act as modulators of the immune response in macrophages.[1]


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