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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by hypoxia and peroxisome proliferators in the corneal epithelium.

Hypoxic injury provokes inflammation of many tissues including the ocular surface. In rabbit corneal epithelial cells, both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-inducible cytochrome P450 4B1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNAs were increased by hypoxia. PPAR alpha and beta but not gamma mRNAs were detected in these cells. The PPAR activator, WY-14,643 increased COX-2 expression. Similarly, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the ability to activate PPARs induced COX-2 independently of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition. COX-2 protein overexpression by hypoxia and PPAR activation was not associated with a parallel increase in prostaglandin E(2) accumulation. However, the enzyme regained full catalytic activity when: 1) hypoxic cells were re-exposed to normoxic conditions in the presence of heme and arachidonic acid, and 2) WY-14,643-treated cells were depleted of intracellular GSH. Consistent with previous observations showing that the corneal production of cytochrome P450-derived inflammatory eicosanoids is elevated by hypoxia and inflammation, the current data suggest that hypoxic injury is a model of inflammation in which molecules other than COX-derived arachidonic acid metabolites play a major proinflammatory role. This study also suggests that increased cellular GSH may be the mechanism responsible for the characteristic dissociation of PPAR-induced COX-2 expression and activity. Moreover, we provide new insights into the commonly observed lack of efficacy of classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of hypoxia-related ocular surface inflammation.[1]


  1. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by hypoxia and peroxisome proliferators in the corneal epithelium. Bonazzi, A., Mastyugin, V., Mieyal, P.A., Dunn, M.W., Laniado-Schwartzman, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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