The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Aberrant expression of nNOS in pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease is highly co-localized with p21ras and p16INK4a.

Aberrancies of growth and proliferation-regulating mechanisms might be critically involved in the processes of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Expression of p21ras and further downstream signalling elements involved in regulation of proliferation and differentiation as, for example, MEK, ERK1/2, cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases and their inhibitors such as those of the p16INK4a family, are elevated early during the course of neurodegeneration. Activation of p21ras can also directly be triggered by nitric oxide (NO), synthesized in the brain by various isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that might be differentially involved into the pathomechanism of AD. To study the potential link of NO and critical regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the process of neurofibrillary degeneration, we analyzed the expression pattern of NOS-isoforms, p21ras and p16INK4a compared to neurofibrillary degeneration in AD. Additionally to its expression in a subtype of cortical interneurons that contain the nNOS-isoform also in normal brain, nNOS was detected in pyramidal neurons containing neurofibrillary tangles or were even unaffected by neurofibrillary degeneration. Expression of nNOS in these neurons was highly co-localized with p21ras and p16INK4a. Because endogenous NO can activate p21ras in the same cell which in turn leads to cellular activation and stimulation of NOS expression [H.M. Lander, J.S. Ogiste, S.F.A. Pearce, R. Levi, A. Novogrodsky, Nitric oxide-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on p21 ras, J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 7017-7020], the high level of co-expression of NOS and p21ras in neurons vulnerable to neurofibrillary degeneration early in the course of AD thus provides the basis for an autocrine feedback mechanism that might exacerbate the progression of neurodegeneration in a self-propagating manner.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities